The history of America could have been difficult to be written short of the significance of its founding fathers. The North America transformation that occurred in 1793 was an important period for the U.S. as it was the conclusion of a long warfare involving Europe and America. In Colin G. Calloway’s “The Scratch of a Pen 1793,” the reader if informed of the different occurrences that resulted into the social conditions as well as how these events transformed all through the year1763. The paper looks into the historical significance of social conditions in reference to the text “The Scratch Of A Pen 1763” that was authored by Colin G. Calloway
In 1793, the people who were living in the United States were so many, including the English, the Scots-Irish, Africans, Germans, French et cetera. On the farthest West, the region was inhabited by the Spaniards along with the French and a mixture of diverse Indian Tribes. During that time, the French, as well as the British, had completed their dominance in the North American region; the colonies believed that whoever had control over Ohio country would win the whole American continent. Both Britain and France were petrified regarding what one of them would do in order to win. For the Spaniards, they had chosen to keep out of the war throughout the Sever Year’s War. The Treaty of Paris 1763 was the end to the Seven Years’ War that was as well referred to as the French - Indian war in America. Calloway, in this book, enlightens the reader that this was more than the mere involvement of the French as well as Indian in the war. Both France and Britain wanted to overcome the Indians since they are inhabited Ohio Country; that was the founding land of the Indians in America. An alliance had been formed between the Indians and the French, but inopportunely the French had given the land belonging to the Indians to the British devoid of even having consultations with them. The Indians complaints are highlighted in the above book:
“Instead of restoring to us our lands, we see you in possession of them, & building more Forts in many parts of our Country, notwithstanding the French are dead,” (Calloway 55).
Immigration of people from Europe into Indian’s lands: In addition to the British indifference towards the Natives, immigration of individuals from Europe as well as the colonies into the Indian lands merely aggravated tensions (Calloway 56-58). The absolute numbers of Europeans who were moving into the `backcountry' astounded British efforts of controlling the tide. Most of the `front line' settlers had the tendency to be an uncontrollable lot, and they were accustomed to the self-rule lifestyle. A number of the most leading colonists, as well as George Washington, had a desire to exploit the land rush that had started following the war's aftermath (Calloway 60-65). Through purchasing of the land prior to the settler’s arrival, they had a hope of making a fortune out of it. Their thinking was on the basis of the supposition that all the new land by then were under the English Crown hands, instead of being under the Native American tribes. However, beneath there was a frantic need to recuperate financially from the war. In Virginia, even though Washington had married an affluent widow, his assets all through the war were "swallowed up before I knew where I was, all the money I got by the Marriage, nay more, brought me in Debt" (Calloway 28).
The mixture of smallpox epidemics, food shortage, broken promises, as well as indifference through the British Army, it inescapably led to the foremost revolution in America (Calloway 67-74). A countrywide revolt led by the Delaware Chief Pontiac left the British Army aggravated and spread thin. The Forts that was transverse to the eastern half of the U.S. were taken and out of anxiety, and `gifted' to the Indian leaders. During the last part, competing loyalties, sickness, as well as the need for the right to use European goods destabilized the attempt to exonerate North America of Whites. Even though, colonists effectively revolted in opposition to the British rule 12 years afterwards, the status in addition to susceptibility of the Native Americans prohibited them from keeping hold of autonomy in a fast changing continent.
As Calloway asserts, the Seven Years War continued for nine years in the United States, owing to the half-a-century long competition involving the French and the British, regarding the control of Canada as well as the trans-Appalachian West. The British had fared poorly at the onset of the war. Calloway observes that, with the elimination of the French threat by the British on the frontier, the American colonists spilt out the mountains to claim the Ohio and Kentucky lands that were very fertile. There was much bloodshed that ensued during the fighting of the settlers by the Indians. In the book, Calloway makes a conclusion by the following statement: “Peace brought little peace and much turmoil to North America.”
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