Sexual assault is a forced or unwanted sexual activity. It may be in the form of forceful kissing, exhibitionism, rape and groping. Before sexual assault could begin, the victim might face various threats that make the culprit have the control of the situation. The passing of sexual threats to an individual could also be into consideration as a sexual assault. One might threaten to have sex with a vulnerable person because he or she has authority over the victim. Incest sex could also be referred to as an act of sexual assault (Neidig, 2009). The issue of sexual harassment had attracted the attention of the American security due to the increased sexual harassment in the colleges (MacKinnon, 1991). The college has to formulate a straightforward method that would openly allow the students to report any form of sexual harassment for investigation. The Title IX formula would help in ensuring the schools are from any form of sexual harassment.
The writer of the article “compass sexual assault study “gives the reality of sexual assault that college student goes through. College students undergo various types of sexual assault that are popular in the college. University student is so curious that they have to test for almost everything. Most of the assault are out of curiosity that they have and in the process of testing them (Neidig, 2009).
Sexual assault could also be defined as a form of violating the sexual privacy of an individual. It could be just a touch on the body in a way suggesting the need for more than a touch. The touch has to be with a particular part of the body (Neidig, 2009). Through verbal communication, one could easily cause sexual assault by passing information that interferes with the sexual integrity of the victim. An act would only be considered sexual assault depending on the area of jurisdiction. Some cultural practice could be regarded as sexual assault by people of different culture. Whatever is deemed to be a sexual assault could just be a normal way of life to another culture.
The Title IX defines sexual harassment as an awkward behavior that sexually irritates and is never welcomed by the victim. The form of sexual harassment is mostly found in the colleges (MacKinnon, 1991). According to Title IX, sex discrimination together with sexual harassment is prohibited from the schools. The sexual harassment based on gender discrimination has been an issue in Yale states. Schools have been advised to take frontline in ensuring the campuses are free of sex discrimination. The administration is father encouraged to act in any form of sexual harassment that could crop in.
There are various cases of sexual assaults that go unreported; it could be due to the fear of shame by the victim or bribery (Cantor, 2015). Most of the women fear to share the experience of sexual assault with their friend with the fear that they would taint their name. Men could also be victims of sexual assault, but it would be very rare for a person to report a sexual assault due to the egocentrism in the male (MacKinnon, 1991). Sexual assault could as well be any nonconsensual sexual intimacy that involves any of the unwanted sexual practices.
There various concepts of sexual assault that individual face. Sexual violence- sexual violence is considered an attack since it involves harassment, verbal abuse rape and the use of homicide. The parties that take part in sexual violence could be friends, relatives or even members of the same family. Most of the victims of sexual violence know the cause of the act and the performers of the act (Neidig, 2009).
Criminal Sexual Assault- may involve the use objects that are not sexual organs to penetrate through the female sex organ (MacKinnon, 1991). The use of non-sexual body like the anus to pass the penis through it would be referred to as unlawful sex. It would be illegal to use the mouth and any other part of the body apart from the vagina, and the penis is not sex organs. The penis is never considered in the mouth and the anus, it is an act of sexual crime.
Rape- almost every country has its definition of rape according to their culture. In some state in the United States of America, a touch of any sensitive part of a human body becomes a sign of rape (Cantor, 2015). It is considered a sexual assault. Rape involves the use of physical strength in trying to have a forceful sexual intercourse. Relationship violence- the violence includes people who are in a given kind of relationship (Stone, 2015). The parties that get involved in this type of violence could be boy and girlfriend or parents. The type of violence might involve the abuse of sexual organs or violation of the importance and the respect given to the bodies. One person might use sexual threats that cause an assault on the victim.
Catherine in her report, she says that 94% of the American campus rape are never reported to the police. Sexual assault is considered unlawful by all states what differs is the definition of the act the makes an action to be regarded as a sexual assault. The legal law recognizes situations of the sexual assault before any judgment could be passed on the victim. The victim could be incapacitated when he or she lacks the mental ability to make a sexual judgment. The law covers even the sexual assault that might occur between individuals of the same sex (MacKinnon, 1991). In some states, sexual assaults could be considered in two different ways. They distinguish between violent sexual assault that involves penetration, and the lighter side would be the unauthorized touch that sexually provoke the victim. The law of the states prohibits any form of assault that puts the victim in fear through the use of threats. The federal legislation of the states also prohibits the sexual assault that occurs at the point when the victim is incapacitated (Cantor, 2015). Sexual assault is rampant in the universities and colleges. The research found that their fellows have sexually attacked about 65% of the university student at on point.
It was reported that male professors had been using the female students for sex promising to give them good grades in the exams. Some female victims got the threat of arrest for tainting the name of the university professor without evidence (MacKinnon, 1991). The court could not find a proper evidence to rule for the student. A study in the United States on the sexuality of the school students shows that about 90% students have been forced to violate their rights. Students have been forced by their teachers to kiss him or hers forcefully and even do more sexual act than kissing (Cantor, 2015). Criminal justice has to take the charge to ensure a free environment for the students to study without fear of assault.
Drug use among the college going students in the United States has been on the rise among both the male and female students. Alcohol is the widely abused substance by the college going students due its availability, and most of the students have reached or are passed the minimum age requirement. Most of the time the students find themselves in modern place or during a social gathering where they consume a lot of alcohol, this impairs their reasoning leading to increasing in rape among several vices (Neidig, 2009).
A lot of literature have been written the issue of intoxicated rape, and the recent article in the Wall Street Journal on who is to be blamed when both the victims are drunk and the male ends up raping the female. The regular commentator James Taranto that the approach given to the issue should be a balanced one so that the blame is not only on the male student alone but the two should be parties involved should be held culpable. There are reasons why men tend to rape women when they are both intoxicated which has made the act to increase in colleges and university across the US.
Expectations of male students seem to rise with the increase in the level of intoxication that is, men feel more powerful, sexually active and their aggressive nature increases with increase in the circulation of alcohol in their body. It is the feeling of being powerful and sexual when one is drunk that has always led to the increase in rape; this happens since the flawed reasoning make them misinterpret the friendliness of the female companion as being a sexual interest advanced towards him. The lady may also be as drunk as the male student at this time leading to rape.
The second reason to increase in the number of intoxicated rape cases among college students is the stereotypic reasoning that women who drink in the social joints and bars to be promiscuous sexually hence making them a target for sexual advances (Stone, 2015). It is common therefore in Universities for a male student to take a girl for a date then give her alcohol as this will lead to them having sex later on. In an instant when the two end up in a room when both are drunk if the male makes moves on a woman, her level of resistance may be affected thus increasing the chances of rape. Evidence of an interview with college going ladies proves that, when they are intoxicated, the female tend to give in easily unlike when sober when they have several ways of dodging the situation if such happens.
Among the female students in colleges, victims with highest chances of falling into the trap of rape are the girls also known as a sorority. Sorority is a group of women students who have come together for social reasons. It has been proven over time that men are attracted to such groups as sorority since they are associated with partying and heavy drinking with the result being intoxicated rape. Group members of such organizations and fraternity have one thing they follow, to drink a lot of alcohol heavily then act in a manner that is immoral; this has most of the time ended up in casual sex mostly without the consent of the female. What is apparent is that several women who join such organizations on campus are new to heavy drinking making them fall into the much mature male who prey on them when they are drunk.
Consent and Sexual Assault
The term consent is defined loosely as when someone mostly a woman, agrees, says “yes” or permits the other individual to have sex with her partner. The parties involved are always free to say “yes,” “no,” “no permission” before the other makes a move on them (MacKinnon, 1991). According to the University of Michigan, the set policies on sexual conduct by the students, defines consent in details thus, an agreement that is crystal and unambiguously expressed in words that both the individuals can mutually understand before they engage in any particular activity. Ones the parties have consented, either of them can withdraw the agreement at his or her wish, and the other is expected to obey (Stone, 2013). An agreement before sex according to the policy must be given voluntary, that is; it might not be valid if the accord subjects a lady to a behavior that may cause emotional pain or intimidation or psychological pressure or fear. Consent revolves around the idea that every human being has the right to personal sovereignty, that is to say, an individual should not be acted upon by the other person in a manner that is sexual without them giving permission which should be personal.
The party involved should make sure that they consent every situation that involves sex and that they should not assume the body language of the other. It is then important to clarify the feeling of your partner before advancing a sexual move on her. Any assumption by the body language or the appearance which include the way a person dresses, looks at the other, smiles, act, etc. should not be misinterpreted to mean consent. The second condition involves individuals who have had sexual activity at one point or are dating, these two should not be confused to mean that when they meet at any time, one feels like engaging in sexual intercourse they make a move.
In colleges across the US, the rate of sexual assault has been on the rise this does not only include the number of reported cases but also the ones that go unreported due to laxity of the victim. The victim may fear the embarrassment associated by being raped as majority frown upon such revelations. According to the American Civil Liberty Union, the estimated percentage of the number of violations in colleges that go unreported is 95, this happens mostly when the victims are scared of speaking about the act, the attacker is personally known to the victim or in some cases feel that reporting the case will not help them.
Sexual assault in colleges across the country has been on the rise due to the, and this is because institutions have continued to deny the existence of the vice, also, in several cases, the perpetrator of the act go unpunished. In some instances the victims are not eager to report to the relevant authority even after being assaulted, this complicates the matter as it contradicts the requirement of Title 9. It is always a requirement that the professional counselors are not supposed to report to the authority if the victim is not willing to pursue a legal case.
Gender and Sexual Assault
Title 9 on the issue of sex is clearly defined, this means that access to justice should be served equally to both male and female in the case of assault. Gender and sexual harassment, in this instance, entails making innuendos, giving out names to a person of a different gender, the names are sexually motivated, or finally touching someone in a manner that is not appropriate. Sexual assaults in colleges involve the unwanted and unwelcome behaviors that have significant interference with the access of education to the student (MacKinnon, 1991).
The issue of gender and sexual assault in colleges is common mostly towards the girls who are tricked into submission even though few reported cases are available in the male being harassed by the female. Institutions have documented that the majority of students who make advances towards sexual harassment are an athlete who is in football or basketball.
There are recommendations for the prevention of sexual assault in colleges that may help reduce the vice in; they involve teaching the college members to act in case of such situation of sexual violence. The action may be regarding report to the relevant authority, peer education on the issues of consent before sex, avoiding overindulgence in alcohol during social events among others. The second recommended is though risk reducing this involve the empowering of those at risk of being sexually assault through messages that will remind them of the dangers and also talking to the people who might carry out the act.
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