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OOP is a form of a design philosophy that is the acronym to Object Oriented Programming and uses a different programming language as compared to the classical procedural programming languages. Further based on a concept of objects that at times may have data present as fields OOP is also referred to as attributes and code (Kindler, 313). The codes are in the form of procedures also referred to like the methods. The object’s procedures are capable of accessing and even modify the data fields of the subject matter they align towards. According to OOP, the computer programs are made out of the objects that closely interact with one another. In as much as there is diversity in the languages of OOP, the class-based ones are the most accepted which means that the objects are instances of the particular classes which in turn determine the type. Some of the major object-oriented languages include the Swift, Python, C++, Ruby, Objective-C, Common Lisp, Smalltalk, Java, C#, Delphi, Perl, and PHP (Michael, 470). The OOP is the successor of the Procedural programming that had challenges with code reusability, unlike the OOP. With the procedural programming, only the procedures could be reused to make them flexible and also generic. Therefore, the OOP design has revolutionized the world of programming over the course of time and is fundamentally capable and efficient than the classical programming languages.

Advantages of OOP

The major benefits and also goals of OOP are:

        To make the complicated software faster to develop and also easy to maintain.

        It enables the reusability of codes easier through the application of simple and also widely accepted and fundamental principles.

        It provides a clear modular structure for the program and hence is instrumental and superior at defining the abstract data types where the execution particulars may be concealed, and the unit may have a visibly defined interface.

        It is essential for developing graphical user interface due to the excellent framework for code libraries provided by the OOP allowing for the adaptation and modification of software components ((Kindler, 323).

For programming language to be object oriented at any given instance there is a need to enable the working with classes and objects coupled with the implementation of the fundamental principles of OOP and the concepts. These may include the inheritance, encapsulation, abstraction, and polymorphism.

Encapsulation enables the hiding of the unnecessary details within the classes and also provides a very clear, simplified interface to work with them. It can hide the data implementation through the restriction of the access to the Accessors and the Mutators. The accessor is the methodology used to ask the details of an object regarding itself. They are found in the form of properties that have an accessor method but not restricted to the properties meaning that they can be any method offering information on the state of the object. The mutators, on the other hand, are the public methods that may be used to modify the condition of the object (Michael, 470).

Data Abstraction and encapsulation are widely tied together, and it is the simplest principle to understand (Kindler, 315). Abstraction is the development of classes, objects and the types of data in the form of interfaces and also functionality as an alternative to their implementation details. It is imperative at helping the programmer to deal with the objects through consideration of their essential characteristics ignoring g the other details.

Inheritance is the process by which the objects are capable of acquiring the properties of the objects in another class. It makes it possible for class hierarchies to improve the code readability and also enable the reusability functions (Lewis and Loftus, 100). The reusability provided by the inheritance in OOP may take the form of the addition of features to an existing class without causing any modification and achieved through the derivation of a new class from one that is existent, and the new class contains the features of the both classes.

Polymorphism is essential at enabling working in the same manner with the different objects defining a particular implementation of abstract behavior (Lewis and Loftus, 101). It is defined as the ability to take more than one form in that the operation may exhibit diverse behaviors in the differing instances. It is extensively used in the implementation of inheritance.

In conclusion, the OOP design has revolutionized the world of programming over the course of time. It is fundamentally effective and efficient than the classical Procedural programming languages that were difficult to reuse. The OOP has made it possible for the reusability of codes and also has made the work easier for the programmers. It has been so due to the ability to work with classes and objects coupled with the implementation of the fundamental principles of OOP and its concepts.
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