Question 1: LEARNING
According to the behaviori...
Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Intelligence
Question 1: LEARNING
According to the behaviorist perspective, there are three
major principles of learning. These are Classical Conditioning, which is
learning through association, Operant Conditioning, which is learning through
consequences and modeling or Observational learning which is learning through
observation (Baum, 2005).
It was developed by B.F. Skinner in
1937 and is majorly concerned with the modification of voluntary behavior. It
operates in the environment that is maintained by its consequences. The core
tools of operant conditioning are reinforcement and punishment which may be
either positive in that they are delivered following a response or negative
that are withdrawing following response (Baum, 2005).
Among the students, the best strategy
is to be able to offer reinforcement for students that take action without
procrastinating. One would reward the students who take action within the
timelines and also introduce harmful tools or the withdrawal of what is
appealing to an individual to eliminate procrastination tendencies.
According to this principle, if a neutral
stimulus that elicits no response at first is paired with a stimulus that
already evokes a particular reflex or response, then the new stimulus will by
itself evoke a similar response (Baum, 2005). According to the principle, a
conditioned stimulus (CS) when paired with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) then
it strengthens the connection between the Conditioned stimulus and the
To address procrastination among
students, one may treat the action as the CR, then the steps of making the
decision to take the action as the CS while the promise of success as the UCS.
The indicating success that comes with making the right decision on time will
eventually be attached to taking an action taken immediately. Therefore, the
students can be able to overcome procrastination tendencies.
Individuals can learn faster and better
through watching others act in a similar way. Students and young people can
model or rather have a way of mirroring what they see others do. Therefore, one
may be exposed to various learning styles from others that have made it in
particular areas (Baum, 2005).
To avoid or rather beat procrastination
among students one may come up with ways to have the students take role models
in society. It can be done by having the students engage and also learn from
others in society that they look up to or admire. They can be able to learn the
importance of taking actions in a proactive manner instead of postponing to a
later date through seeing others do it or share their experience and roadmap to
Question 2: Memory
The Three Way Model of memory is composed of:
It is the earliest stage of memory in an individual. At this
stage, the sensory information from the environment is stored very briefly
usually for no longer that had half a second for visual information and around
3 or 4 seconds for auditory input. There is only a portion of the information
in the sensory memory attended to and advances to the next stage of memory
which is the short-term memory (Plotnik, 2005).
It is the active memory since it contains the information
that we are aware of and are thinking about. It is what Freud called the
conscious mind of an individual. Individuals pay attention to sensory memories
that generate information in the short-term memory (Plotnik, 2005). At this
stage, storage of information is for approximately 20 to 30 seconds. The
majority of the information at this stage is lost, and the retained memory is
attended to and continues to the next stage of long-term memory.
At this level, the memories are stored. According to
Freudian psychology, the long-term memory could be referred to as the
unconscious mind of an individual. The information is largely outside the
awareness of an individual but can also be called the working memory since it
is used when needed (Plotnik, 2005). The memories are retrieved from the
long-term memory to the short-term memory and is said to have been recalled.
Some information may be easy to remember while others are harder to access.
Students may apply some strategies to
ensure that they recall and also learn better the materials in class. Such
strategies would include having to chunk or cluster the materials they learn.
Grouping information or data as they study makes it easy to be retrieved by the
short term memory. For example, when a student has apples, mangoes, and
oranges, they can chunk them as simply fruits which offer a linkage to access such
information from the long-term memory. The studies may also ensure that they
pay attention to the key points and areas as they consider. It is because the
human brain may not master all the content they learn but is easier to store
what they have paid attention to so that it can advance to the short-term and
the long-term memories. More importantly, the students may also rehearse or
relearn what they learn in particular areas. It is a way of ensuring that every
time they refresh their memory on certain concepts and also ensure that the
principles they missed previously reach their memories, and it also makes it
easier to recall later.
Question 3: Intelligence
Sternberg introduced the triarchic
theory of intelligence that suggested that intelligence is how well an
individual deals with the environmental changes throughout their life. The
theory consists of three major parts which are experiential, practical and
componential. According to Sternberg, they are the “meta-components” which determine
how individuals use their intelligence (Sternberg, 1997). Sternberg asserts
that the complete explanation of intelligence needs to entail the interaction
of the three meta-component sub-theories.The meta-component sub-theories that
he proposed were:
componential intelligence that was later called analytical intelligence. It
outlines the structures and the mechanisms that underlie a behavior categorized
as performance, meta-cognitive or even knowledge acquisition components
sub-theory. It proposes that the intelligent behavior interpreted along a
continuum of experiences that range from novel to highly familiar situations or
tasks (Sternberg, 1997).
sub-theory. It specifies that the socio-cultural context defines intelligent
behavior that it takes place and may involve adaptation to the environment,
selection of a more conducive environment and also shaping up the existing
environment (Sternberg, 1997).
By the use of this model, in an ideal
classroom for learning and efficient training to occur, there need for what is
taught to be socio-culturally relevant to every student in that it should
provide links between the training and the real-world behavior they elicit. The
trainers or teachers should also provide very clear instructions on the
strategies that the students can use to cope with the situations and the tasks
presented. The instructions should also be in executive and non-executive
information processing. Moreover, a classroom should actively encourage the
individual to manifest their differences in the strategies and styles they
Baum, W.M. (2005) Understanding behaviorism: Behavior, Culture and Evolution. Oxford:
Plotnik, Rod. (2005). Introduction to Psychology. Belmont: Thomson-Wadsworth
Sternberg, R. J. (1997). A Triarchic View of Giftedness: Theory and Practice. In N. Coleangelo
& G. A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of Gifted Education (pp. 43–53). Boston, MA: Allyn
Also read: The contributions of psychology to the educational learning process.