W.E.B Du Bois (1903). The
Souls of Black Folk. Top 100 classic publishers.
Souls of Black Folk is an authoritative work in American history written by
W.E.B Du Bois that is a major cornerstone of African-American literary history.
It was written in 1903 and contains several essays on race. In Chapter 1, he
passionately talks about the struggle that the African American people went
through calling for the right to vote, to have a quality education and also
calling for fair treatment and justice. The book talks about a decade between
1870 and 1880 that was his search for freedom and he talks of the carpetbaggers
going to the South for personal gain. He acknowledges the passing of the 15th
Amendment that allowed for the African-Americansâ€™ right to vote and also states
that Abraham Lincoln contributed in a major way to the wellbeing of the black
second chapter is called â€œOf the Dawn of Freedomâ€ and begins with the words
â€œThe problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color line.â€ Du
Bois discusses the historical period of between 1861 to 1872 about the black
minority and the struggle they went through. He asserts that the consideration
of people by their color is what caused a major problem such as the Civil War
witnessed in America. Du Bois further tells of his entering Fisk University in
Tennessee where he comes from the first-hand experience of the Jim Crow world
of the children in the south. He can traverse the South experiencing and
documents in the book the level of discrimination based on the color that
existed in the region.In chapter III and VI, Du Bois majorly concentrates on
education arguing with Booker T. Washingtonâ€™s idea of solely focusing on
industrial education for the black men. He advocates for a classical education
that would establish leaders as well as educators among the black people. The
Chapters VII to IX involves a form of sociological study of the black
population. Du Bois further investigates and articulates the influence that
segregation had on black people. He asserts that the stereotyping against them
that they were lazy, simple minded and violent were a direct result of the
treatment that the black population received from the white majority.
Omi M. & Winant H.
(1986). Racial Formation in the United States: From 1960 to the1980s. New York:
chapter 4, Michael Omi and Howard Winant analyze the racial formation theory as
an analytical tool in sociology. They used the theory to look at race as a
socially constructed identity whereby the importance and the content of the
racial categories are determined by the political, economic and social forces.
They developed the view that contrary to the other race theories before the
racial formation in the book, the racial meanings pervades the society of the
US. It extended from shaping the individual ethnic identities to the structuring
of the overall political action on the terrain of the nation.
to the book, race is a social concept. They start by exploring the historical
development of race as a dynamic and liquefied social construct. Their view
goes against the dominant courses on race that suggests that it static and
unchanging concepts based on physical and genetic criteria.
to Michael Omi and Howard Winant, the racial formation perspective is
imperative at explaining race as an autonomous field of the social conflict,
the political organizations as well as ideological and cultural meaning. They further emphasized the extent to which
the race was a social and political construction and operates at two levels.
They are the micro and macro. The micro is the individual identities while the
macro is the collective social structures. They assert that the two levels interact
to form a social movement when a person at the micro level is mobilized in the
response to the political, racial injustice at the macro level.
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