Analysis of spatial change and urban performance | MyPaperHub

Historical overview



China has been taking up globalization for many centuries.


The United States that was formerly reserved about taking up globalization became active at the opening of world markets relinquishing of its protectionist policies that had been the norm in the 19th century up to the 1930s (Hopkins, 2002).

The first historical indication of China engaging in internationalism was during the Han Dynasty.

The dynasty further developed avenues of contact between China and Europe making routes that facilitated for trade between the Dynasty and other nations making it even stronger (Bayly, 2004).

During the early post-World War period all the way to the 1960s, a massive census in the United States was for the idea of liberal international trade policies(Hopkins, 2002).

In the beginning, the Huns in the north were seeking to attack and rule the frontiers of Han. Emperor Wu of Han in an attempt to protect his borders sought to develop economic and political alliances with a country called Dayuezhi so as to join forces in fighting the enemy attacks (Bayly, 2004).

The USA decision to allow the dollar be determined in the free market played a significant role at the globalization of currency markets which paved the way for other financial markets (Bowles,2007).


Analysis of the impact of economic change

Globalization has a varied effect on the three Es of sustainability. These are; Equity, Ecology, and Economy.



·         The economy of China under the more open laws to globalization and the global market has grown exponentially during 1978 to 2012, the GDP of China grew at about 9.8% annually, and it increased more than 22.5 times during the period (Killion, 2006).

·         By the year 2010, China surpassed Japan to become the world’s second largest economy and also surpassed Germany in Export volume to become the world’s largest.

·         The United States’ economy grew substantially in the post-Second World War following the globalization efforts of the country that emerged as one of the World’s superpower.

·         During the Cold War with Russia, it is the globalization effort by the USA that made them come up on top.

·         On the equity front, it has become an unequal country despite the fact that China was known for its equality in socialism. It is because of the difference in income in the country.

·         The UNDP, Human Development Report (2005) indicated that if the world were one country, globalization would result in 20% of the world’s population having more than three-quarters of the income.

·         The poorest 40% would have a mere 5% of the world’s income leading to the so-called Champaign glass effect.

·         However, there have been questions on the level of inequality in the country.

·         The number of the poor in the country is increasing.

·          The industrial workers are also losing their jobs as a result of globalization since most industry players prefer to outsource some products from China and other countries where the cost of production is lower.

·          It is this that has further deepened inequality in the country (Bowles,2007).

·         The ecology and the environment of China have also been adversely affected.

·          In the present due to the rapid industrialization to meet the demand of exportation, China is experiencing one of the worst environmental hazards.


·         The ecological pressure on the USA has also continued with globalization that has brought stiff competition from key players in industries.

·         There is also welcoming of foreign explorers and exploiters that in some cases have led to massive environmental degradation.

·          For example, the BP oil spill that caused a lot of ecological problems yet the firm was from Britain.



Conclusion Part 1

Globalization has significantly increased and enhanced the mobility of goods and services through the division of labor of industry players. It has led to efficiency and focus on primary competencies of industries since they can outsource or partner with multinationals. It is this that has made trade more efficient, competitive and enhanced lives of billions of people globally (Bowles,2007). The global cooperation has also led to exemplary low prices in most cases. However, it has led to major inequality challenges as well as ecological challenges due to the overstretching of resources and the environment. It has also resulted in the outsourcing of labor and services leading to loss of jobs and ultimately inequality. However, the benefits of the increased productivity and GDP growth overcome the challenges since the multinationals can join forces and resources to address the challenges that come with their cooperation.

Conclusion Part 2

The Cities in China and the USA have experienced marginal changes in income with more. There is a general growth in the rate of revenue with the poverty levels reducing marginally over the years. However, there are sustainability challenges experienced in the two countries. These are ecological issues with China being the most affected. The increased industrialization severely damages their environment.

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