Stuttering is a developmental speech
problem in w...
Stuttering is a developmental speech
problem in which the continuous flow of words is interrupted by repetition of
words, sounds or the prolongation of sounds.
Stuttering is a disorder that is treatable among the children and
adolescents. There is a variety of approaches employed to address stuttering
among children and adolescents. All the intervention methods agree that
stuttering is a condition that can be treated over time. The behavioral
response to stuttering is one practical approach to addressing the problem.
Behavioral approaches for Stuttering Interventions are interventions that
involve an attempt to change the speech behavior through the direct attempt to
modify the speech problem, through operant conditioning or a combination of
both. The short-term outcome of the behavioral approach to stuttering indicated
a change in the stuttering. In the short run, there is a significant reduction
of stuttering and in some patients the stuttering completely stops. However, if
not followed with good support and the therapy is stopped, there is the danger
of a relapse to stuttering especially in case one experiences a traumatic
Article 1: Behavioral Stuttering
Interventions for Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and
Meta-Analysis of 9 studies.
The purpose of article 1 was to
evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral interventions designed to treat
stuttering among the children. The article used the systematic review to
conduct the research with the treatment being the behavioral intervention to
stuttering. The participants in the study were of ages 2 to 18 years of age.
Seventy-seven per cent of the participants were male, and twenty-three percent
were female. The research design adopted is the quasi- experimental group
design since it was not a true experiment. The outcome measure reported was
stuttering among children. The researcher conducted an electronic search of
eight databases and yielded nine types of research (Nye et. al., 2013). The
researches represented 327 participants that were treated using the approach to
treating stuttering across seven differing intervention types. The data was
obtained for the participant treatment and outcome features and methodological
quality. The results of the study
indicated that there was no considerable difference in the treatment methods
adopted. However, treatment of the stuttering disorder brought about positive
results a compared to the group that did not receive the treatment. It stands
to validate the treatment approaches adopted meaning that they are successful
in treating stuttering.
The methodology is taken into account
by the systematic review in the article involved the establishment of a
suitable criterion to be used in searching for the relevant data. The criteria
taken into consideration addressed the procedures for study inclusion whereby
only the RCTs and QED researches of two or more groups would be included in the
study. The other criterion was on study retrieval whereby the keywords and the
databases to be included were determined. The study selection was also
determined whereby it took place in two stages. Stage 1 was the title and the
abstract screening and stage two involved the full-text manuscript screening.
The data extraction included coding of each study across four primary dimensions
namely: design features, participant features, intervention characteristics and
the outcome features (Nye et. al., 2013).
Table 1 indicates all the features of
the participants. It shows the problems that the patients faced and the
difficulties that they had. It also suggests the treatment method administered
to each participant making it easy to identify the treatment given to the
participants. The outcome of the treatment is documented for each participant.
With the table, it is easy for the researchers to address the issue on the
behavioral stuttering interventions for children. It is the information
provided in the table that made it easier for the research to be conducted
since the specific behavioral interventions were outlined for particular issues
faced by the children. It made it possible to discern between interventions
that are effective and those that are not.
Article 2: Long- and short-term results
of children and adolescents’ therapy courses for stuttering
The purpose of the study is to address
the rigorous therapy courses for children and teenagers that are stuttering.
The study involved 21 children and adolescents that have the stuttering
disorder together with 29 mothers and fathers to the affected children and
adolescents. The age of the children was between 6.8 to 14 years old, and five
were girls and 16 boys. The children formed two groups of children below ten
years and adolescents of over ten years old. The children under ten years old
took part in the study for children who stutter and the rest for adolescents
that stutter (Laiho & Klippi, 2007). The analysis of the therapy was
analyzed in three ways. First, the speech of the stuttering participants was
videotaped at the beginning and the end of the course and then transcribed for
analysis. The videotapes for all the participants were analyzed both
qualitatively and quantitatively. Secondly, the parents and the participants
were presented with a questionnaire to fill at the end of the course. Thirdly,
the parents and the children filled a follow-up questionnaire after nine months
after completing the course. It aimed at analyzing the changes in the
stuttering behavior of the children after the therapy course was over.
The results of the research showed that
the stuttering of the children either became milder or did not change over the
course. Additionally, the percentage of the syllables stuttered by the children
dropped by two-thirds of the participants. The stuttering became milder, and
more of the children had more prolongation and repetition instead of blocks.
The positive outcome of the course was also present even after the course was
completed (Laiho & Klippi, 2007).
Table 4 of the study indicates the participant’s percentages
for stuttering behavior. It was an instrumental table at enabling the
researcher to determine the changes that occurred because of the intervention
employed by the researcher. It indicated the short-term and the long-term
effects of therapy for the children and adolescents that stutter in a
quantitative manner that can be interpreted and discussed qualitatively.
Article 1 relied heavily on a
systematic review of the past studies and researches. It relied on the previous
information from reliable sources to draw an inference on the research topic.
On the either hand, article two built on conducting research that is
independent, and that is custom made to the purpose and objectives of the
research. Article one and two are similar in that they have both used a
quasi-experiment design. It is because; the experiments in both cases do not
fit the criteria to be extensive experiments. The article two, for example, did
not have a control group that is critical for an experiment. The two articles
also drew their participants from the children and adolescents since they are
at a better chance of treatment of the stuttering problem they face. The
research targets and participant numbers for the studies are big enough to draw
an inference and make a generalization while at the same time remaining within
the limits that are controllable and manageable.