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Stem Cells and Its Implication on Medical Surgery and Tissue Transplant

Stem Cells and Its Implication on Medical Surgery and Tissue Transplant

Posted on Jun 2018:- By: PaperHub
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     I.        Abstract

The paper explores the stem cells and its implication on medical surgery and tissue transplant. In articulating appreciable concern to the research topic, the paper has been established into three main categories. The categories include the introduction, the study content, and the conclusion. The focus of the paper is within the study content. The study content entails the various sources of the stem cells within the human body system, the relevant types of the stem cells, and the acknowledged importance of the stem cells in medical research and healthcare issues. The main focus of the paper is to come up with a positive social change in the establishment of the tissue transplant and surgery activities among medical personnel. In that, they would understand the various areas where the establishment of any form of surgery activity during the transplant process can be performed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Final Assignment

II.            Introduction

The medical transplanting is normally achieved with technicalities following limited understanding and knowledge about the stem cells. In this essence, the specific problem revolve around the inability of medical practitioners to engage in concrete implementation of the concepts of the stem cells during the human tissue transplanting. For that, matter, the paper aims at exploring the stem cells and their use in medical concerns as well as any ethical issue associated with the stem cells in medical implementations. The stem cells are biologically initiated cells that are characterized by a continual self-differentiation. Here, the existence of the stem cells within the body is associated with the differentiation trait. In this essence, and following the differentiation trait, the stem cells have been utilized in handling clinical issues related to transplantation therapy.

There are three sources of the stem cells within the human body system. Other than the bone marrow, the stem cells are also found in the adipose tissue, and blood. Moreover, given the different sources of the stem cells, it is however evident that the cells also exist in different categories. In this essence, to understand about the stem cells and their importance in managing human health activities, it is important to acknowledge the different kinds of the stem cells, and their relevant sources, after which, it would be easy to explore how the stem cells can be utilized in the laboratory for healthcare management. Therefore, the significance of the study is aimed at ensuring a positive social change in the utilization of the stem cells for medical purposes.

A.    Literature Review

The establishment and the applicability of the stem cell ideology in medical research have been subjected to many clinical attempts as far as human healthcare is concerned. Calvi, Adams, Weibrecht, Weber, Olson, Knight, and Milner, (2003) acknowledged on the use of osteoblastic cells as an important component of the stem cells in regulating hematopoietic stem cell niche. Here, the authors positively influenced their ideological understanding of the differentiation trait of the stem cell as an important scientific perception that has promptly acted in ensuring body tissue repair. Particularly, the fact that the bone marrow forms a promising source of the stem cell perfectly played a significant role in proving the specified area in which such cell replication activity takes place within the body. In this case, in their article, “Osteoblastic cells regulate the hematopoietic stem cell niche,” the authors reasoned that the replication of the blood cells could perfectly work in promoting a medical surgery and tissue repair in clinical surgery activities.

            Chamberlain, Fox, Ashton, and Middleton (2007) also achieved their research on stem cells by exploring the mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and how to ensure body tissue repair in the human body system. Here, the authors confirmed that mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are obtained from nonhematopoietic stromal cells. The authors acknowledge that the formation of such mesenchymal tissues as ligaments, bones tendons, adipose tissues, and cartilages are achieved from the mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). However, the authors researched that the mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can perfectly work in managing dead and worn out human body tissues within the mentioned body structures.

Relevantly, as suggested by Engler, Sen, Sweeney, and Discher (2006) the stem cells can negatively influence the existence of soft human body tissues. The authors claimed that the action of the stem cells on human body tissue would negatively impact the well-being of the soft tissues in human body parts. In support of the authors’ arguments, Bianco, Riminucci, Gronthos, and Robey (2001) also added that the actions of the stem cells in the repairing of the dead and worn out tissue would on the other hand ham the soft tissues underlying the damaged tissues to be worked on by the stem cells.

It is also suggested by Singh, Clarke, Terasaki, Bonn, Hawkins, Squire, and Dirks,  (2003) that the ideology of the stem cells can be utilized in maintaining and managing tumor clone. The authors acknowledged the sentiment by exploring the relevant means in which the heterogeneity of the tumor clone and the self-renewal, as well as the proliferative potential of the tumor clones. In this essence, it is acknowledged that the stem cells can perfectly work in a medical laboratory or relevant healthcare centers in motivating human surgery process. In that, the doctors will be motivated that the existence of the stem cells within the human body systems would promote the curing of the mentioned body skin by the healthcare personnel.

  III.        Research Content

A.   Background of the Research

The healthcare issue is achieved through a proper and concretely established research activity aimed at ensuring appreciable response to human problems. The research and use of the stem cells ideology have significantly influenced the manner in which the transplantation of relevant human body parts is factored. The stem cells are biologically initiated cells that are characterized by a continual self-differentiation (Bianco, Riminucci, Gronthos, & Robey, 2001). Here, the existence of the stem cells within the body is associated with the differentiation trait. In this essence, and following the differentiation trait, the stem cells have been utilized in handling clinical issues related to transplantation therapy. There are three sources of the stem cells within the human body system.

Other than the bone marrow, the stem cells are also found in the adipose tissue, and blood (Calvi, et al., 2003). Moreover, given the different sources of the stem cells, it is however evident that the cells also exist in different categories. In this essence, to understand about the stem cells and their importance in managing human health activities, it is important to acknowledge the different kinds of the stem cells, and their relevant sources, after which, it would be easy to explore how the stem cells can be utilized in the laboratory for healthcare management.

B.    Sources of Stem Cells

The stem cells that are normally used in the laboratory are normally obtained from different sources within the human body system. However, the sources of the stem cells differ from adults to children. Among the sources of the stem cells in the adult, as already indicated include bone marrow, adipose tissue, and blood. On the other hand, the sources of the stem cells among infants include placenta, amniotic sac, and amniotic fluids.

a)   Bone Marrow

The bone marrow is always the most known source of the stem cells. The bone marrow on its one usually is known to produce a specified type of the stem cell as will be discussed later. Here, the extraction of the stem cell from the bone marrow is always established through a mechanism known as harvesting. Of course, the bone marrow is normally located within the central part of the human bone. For that matter, the harvesting process of the stem cell is normally achieved through a proper drilling activity into the bone. The most commonly used bone system is the femur and the iliac crest.

b)   Adipose Tissues

Other stem cells are specific for the tissues. Among such tissues include the lung, brain, liver, and the adipose tissue. The adipose tissue is found in the human skin. In this essence, the adipose always acts as a potential source of the stem cells. The establishment of the stem cells within the adipose tissue is factored based on the differentiation trait of the adipose tissues. Here, it is acknowledged that the adipose tissues are capable of undergoing complex transcriptional and non-transcriptional cascading events.

Moreover, it has also been biologically confirmed that the stromal cells with the preadipocyte trait are isolated components of the adult adipose tissue. Therefore, given the traditional activities of events that take place within the adipose tissue, it is evidence that such differentiation results in changes within the hormone sensitivity, cell morphology, and the expression of the gene. With such ideological perceptions in mind, it concretely confirms that the stem cells ensure the establishment of the complex activities within the adipose tissue. For that matter, the adipose tissues act as a potential source of the stem cells.

c)   Blood

            Blood is an important component of the human body system. Other than transporting the oxygen to the entire human body system, the blood also aids in ensuring important nutrients into the body of human beings. In this essence, it is evident that other than the existence of the blood-red blood cells within the body through the differentiation process, the blood cell is also found in the nerves of the body system. However, the blood cells normally undergo replication or differentiation to increase its capacity within the body system.

For example, the fact that the blood cells within the bone marrow can undergo the differentiation activity to form another blood cells of the same kind indicate that such cells contain stem cells. Of course, it is already acknowledged that the stem cells are characterized by a systematic and continual differentiation in forming another stem cells of the same kind. Meaning, it is the existence of the stem cells within the blood cells that initiate the replication or the differentiation of the blood cells within the bone marrow to form the blood cells of the same kind. Therefore, based on such arguments, the blood cells act as a potential component of the stem cells.

d)   Placenta

            The placenta is an embryotic component that holds blood during pregnancy. The placenta has always been acknowledged to act as an important source of stem cells due to the existence of the hematopoietic stem cells. Reason being, it has been scientifically approved that the blood within the placenta normally increases with time during the pregnancy period. The increase in the blood level within the placenta during the pregnancy is evidence that the existence of the stem cells initiates such blood level increase through the differentiation process. For that matter, the placenta is also another source where one can claim the existence of the stem cells.

e)   Amniotic Sac and fluid

            The amniotic sac is the fluid-filled sac within the womb that works by ensuring proper protection of the embryo during the pregnancy. The amniotic sac is acknowledged to contain some segment of the stem cells known as amniotic stem cells. The amniotic stem cells are achieved based on the fact that the amniotic fluid and the amniotic membrane contain the stem cells as its structural constituents. Here, the presence of the amniocentesis within the amniotic sac ensures the extraction process of the stem cells. For that matter, given the observed acknowledgment as far as the amniotic sac in motivating the establishment of the stem cells is concerned, it is thus evident that the amniotic sac is a prominent source of the stem cells.

C.  Types of Stem Cells

            The establishment and the source of the stem cells have encouraged the existence of different types of stem cells. Here, among the stem cells lately acknowledged include embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and tissue stem cells. However, the categories of the stem cells are based on the various sources of the mentioned cells.

a)   Embryonic Stem Cells

The embryonic stem cells are associated with the structural components derived from the placenta and both the amniotic sac and fluid. The embryonic stem cells are achieved through the inner structure of the human embryo. However, the embryonic stem cells are normally characterized by the pluripotent ability. In that, their existence and establishment are achieved through the differentiation activity from the mother stem cell into other stem cells of the same kind and nature. The differentiation is normally achieved through three major layers of germs. The three germ layers include endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm. Given the differentiation trait exhibited by the embryonic stem cells, the cells can always develop and result in more the 200 stem cells of the same kind.

     i.        Importance of Embryonic Stem Cells

            The fact that the embryonic stem cells can initiate the limitless differentiation and replication of its own clearly indicate the capability of the cells to be utilized as a tool for conducting medical research and coming up with medicines that can perfectly aid in motivating human health.  Moreover, with the capability to factor an unlimited differentiation and replication of its self, the scientific ideology has promoted the establishment of the ES cell therapy that has perfectly worked in ensuring both tissue and cell replacement in case of any injury or disease in human life. Among the diseases that have been perfectly handled with the ES cell therapy include cancers, immune system and blood genetic diseases, Parkinson’s spinal cord injuries, Parkinson’s blindness disorders, and juvenile diabetes infection.

There are ethical concerns associated with the embryonic stem cell therapy in clinical health. However, other than the ethical concerns with the embryonic stem cell therapy, another factor of great concern is the technical problem associated with graft-versus-host infections during the stem cell transplanting (Bianco, Riminucci, Gronthos, & Robey, 2001). The histocompatibility issue can be handled by ensuring an adult with autologous stem cells, stem cell banks, therapeutic cloning, or inducement of the pluripotent stem cells. In fact, other than the medical research and tissue transplantation, another use of the embryonic stem cells revolve around the establishment of the early human development investigation, toxicology testing vitro system, and genetic infections study.

b)   Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs)

            The induced pluripotent stem cells are similar to the embryonic cells except that it is only applicable to adults. In that, they can be directly extracted from the adult cells. Like the embryonic stem cells, the induced pluripotent stem cells also achieve an indefinite propagation and is capable of ensuring all kind of human body cells upon differentiation. In this essence, they can be perfectly utilized in replacing damaged cells or diseases. Of course, the embryonic stem cell is another type of the induced pluripotent stem cells. The fact that it is only applicable in ensuring transplantation in embryos makes it somehow irrelevant in categorizing the actual factors that would influence its applicability in medical activities. However, the induced pluripotent stem cells can be utilized in transplanting tissues among embryos. The only important factor is to ensure appreciable response to match factor.

The identity of the induced pluripotent stem cells is achieved based on their cellular properties, pluripotency, and epigenetic reprogramming properties. The cellular biological property is achieved based on such biological aspects as morphology, growth, stem cell makers, and telomerase activity. However, the pluripotency property is achieved through neural differentiation, cardiac differentiation, teratoma formation, embryonic body, chimeric mice, and tetraploid complementation. On the other hand, the epigenetic programming is identified through promoter demethylation, DNA methylation globally, and Histone demethylation. 

     i.        Importance of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

            The induced pluripotent stem cells can be perfectly utilized in handling clinical matters. The induced pluripotent stem cells have performed an encouraging task in medical research. Here, the induced pluripotent stem cells have perfectly ensured modeling of diseases and development of drugs, synthesis of organs, repairing of body tissues, red blood cells research, and clinical trial activities. However, the establishment of the mentioned research attempts has been negatively influenced based on certain problems. Among such problems revolve around the formation of tumors during the application of the induced pluripotent stem cells in medical activities, spinal cord injury during the medical tissue transplantation activity, less safety with tumorigenic effects as compared to the use of hESC, and low level of efficiency in the demonstrated medical attempts (Calvi, et al., 2003). Nevertheless, handling such problems, particularly the efficiency and genomic issues, call for utilization of proteomic iPs cells characterization.

c)   Tissue Stem Cells

            The tissue stem cells are found in the human tissue systems. Of course, the stem cells are always characterized by differentiation in forming more body cells. In this essence, the repair of the worn out or damaged tissues is evidence that the stem cells exist within the human body tissues. For example, in case an individual get cut or is engaged in an accident that has resulted into existence of body bruises, the bruises always disappear after a certain first aid aimed at promoting clotting of the platelets. The disappearance of the bruise is associated with the growth of given body tissue to cover the part that had been removed by the existence of the body bruise. The growth of the body tissue is associated with the differentiation and replication of the body tissue within the human skin.

            The tissue stem cells are particularly found in most of the commonly known human tissue systems. Particularly, as already discussed, the tissue stem cell is normally concentrated within the adipose tissue within the human skin as compared to the other body tissues. The adipose tissue is normally known for its attempt at promoting body moistening. Here, the given the fact that the tissue stem cells are always non-pluripotent with the multipotent trait, they can only support a limited number of specialized types of cells that are specific to the origin of the supported organ system. In this essence, their application in medical research is normally restricted to a given user. However, the applicability of the tissue stem cells is validated in surgery activities and other related medical research activities.

 IV.        Conclusion

The stem cells act as important sources of cell replication in most of the human body tissues. In that case, the implementation of the stem cells in tissue transplantation can perfectly work in maintaining the tissue cracks caused by medical therapy activities. For that matter, the achieved knowledge aids in confirming the actual places within the body where any medical surgery can be performed. For example, it has been confirmed that there are some contents of the stem cells in the adipose tissues. However, the adipose tissues are always located within the human body skin. Meaning, any surgical operation conducted within the skin will always achieve a positive response to the restoration of the cut tissue within the skin cells. The only important issue to consider is the relevant mean of achieving medical surgery or tissue transplant in the area that has been acknowledged to have some challenges or problems. Otherwise, the knowledge concerning the stem cell perfectly influences the establishment of body tissue transplant and medical surgery activities.