capital budgeting, there are several appraisal methods and the most common is
the use of net present value analysis (NPV Analysis). The most viable project
to be undertaken is identified for capital budgeting process. In this report,
the managers of new look packaging limited want to expand the capacity of
production by importing a new machine MP-450. As a result, both the
quantitative and qualitative aspects of purchasing this new machine are
considered in this report. The use of NPV analysis and payback period has been
adopted to evaluate whether the project meets the required standards for
implementation. A suitable recommendation has been offered in the last section
of this report after the supporting calculations in excel.
The payback period has also
been factored in to establish whether the project meets the minimum requirement
by the directors of the company. This will ensure that the project has the
ability to recover the initial outlay in a timely manner. The payback period is
used along with the NPV and at times, together with the internal rate of
is only one alternative to choose from. The costs and revenues over the 6 year
period have been analyzed in the excel document. The correct discount rate has
been given at 18%. The appropriate decision is made after considering the excel
the projects with a positive NPV should be accepted. If multiple projects are
being compared with positive NPVs then the one with the highest NPV should be
taken. If the NPV is zero, then the decision will be indifferent. The payback
period should be within the time frame stipulated by the directors for the
project to be viable. The MP-450 is indeed an income generating machine with a
reputation of great performance and easy handling processes. The speed and the
quality of cut realized by the other companies is what the New Look Company
needs. The MP-450 has also been credited of durability and a lifetime service.
Speaking of decision making what could the company further consider with the
current debts that the company is required to repay? The NPV of MP-450 proofs a
worth risk especially for a company looking forward to making more profit with
little or no withdrawals.
The investment appraisal
process (also referred to as capital budgeting) is an evaluation of the
viability of a project based on the cash inflows and outflows. This is useful
in the determination of the equipments to purchase or carry out an overhaul.
Some of the applicable techniques are in capital budgeting are:
payback period measures the time taken to recover the initial outlay cost for
the project. However, the cash flows are
not discounted and the lower the time period the better the project. The best
way to evaluate the payback time is through consideration of time factor,
efficiency, handling and maintenance. Based on the quality of work done by
companies using the MP-450 and their delivery time and maintenance costs, New
look is quite behind the grid. Utilizing the MP-450 might improve its services
hence shortening due to its efficiency and a workable payback period allowing
it to generate more income to the company.
Present Value (NPV) - this
technique makes use of discounted cash flows net of the outflows from the
project. Projects with a positive NPV are considered. It’s beyond doubt that
the new project is promising to promote cash flow in the company following the
many advantages promised upon its installation. The aim of any business is to
make profit, meaning that any project promoting profits in the company should
be considered viable. The MP-450 in our case outweighs all possible doubts
about promotion of income in the company justifying its viability.
Rate of Return (ARR) This
is a non discounted cash flow analysis technique that factors in the residual
income after deducting the cost of the project. This provides a useful analysis
on the profitability of the project from an accounting perspective. The new
look company is enormous with a branch count of 120 and realization of big
returns yearly. Investment on a new machine is like drop in the ocean though a
withdrawal in the company’s accounts. The only motivation accompanied by the
investment is the fact that in the long run the company is assured of huge
profits. The machine purchase has very little impact on the company’s accounts
and in the package great returns are assured.
Rate of Return (IRR) this
is the discounting rate that equates the net present value of the system to
zero. A higher rate for IRR is considered for undertaking
Index (PI) is
the ratio of present value of future cash flows of a project to initial
investment required for the project. The investment assures the company of
improvement in profit both currently and the future despite the small
increased capacity, the quality of the product should not be compromised since
this will make the customers resort to other substitutes available in the
market. In addition, it is important to consider the external environment of
the project. Extreme environmental conditions will make the project
unsuccessful in the installation and operation. It is important to consider the
local competition and establish the impact of the new machine on the market. In
addition, the availability of skilled operators for the machine should be
considered. At times, it might be necessary to send support from the country of
origin to help with the installation and training of workers on how to operate,
repair and maintain the machine. The machine has little or no altering effect
on the products, and its application is easy to understand through clearly
stated instructions hence eliminating investment on more qualified staff.
of the risks facing the project include the rising inflationary trends. The cash
flows should therefore be adjusted to reflect the rate of inflation in the
country. Investing in countries with high inflation rates is risky. In such a
country, the currency conversion will be affected adversely. In addition,
changes in the cost of capital also make the project uncertain. The values used
in the NPV calculation are estimates and this can create a variance with the
actual figures. The variables will create uncertainty especially on the salvage
value and the discounting rate applied. Furthermore, the political environment
can have an impact on the importation of the machine. There can be heavy import
duty taxes that will have an impact on the decision that will be made. Unstable
cash flows can result from political unrests. Stable political environment will
be better for efficiency in running the project.
highly recommend this project following its great qualities and little
maintenance and expenses needed once the project commences. It is
economical to undertake this project. The MP-450 has a positive NPV and this
qualifies in the decision criteria to undertake the project. The management
should consider the non-financial factors discussed above. The required
discounted payback period is 4 years and this new project will repay its
initial outlay in less than three years. This makes the project viable and
capable of making a repayment on the initial cost of purchasing it within the
required time frame. With the above recommendations catered for the company
stands a chance to pay its huge debts and make great profits it’s the future.
to the scarce nature of resources, the capital budgeting decisions should be, made
with a careful approach. As a result, the use of cash flows that are discounted
will provide a great insight into the decisions to be made by the management.
The purchase of MP-450 is a worthwhile decision due to the increased cash flows
and the ability to improve the competitive ability of the company.
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