The three case studies presented in the question contain a similar pattern in the way the dilemmas are framed. In the first instance, Norian, a special kind of cement has been approved to be used in filling the cracks found in the arm and the skull. This innovation has been noted to be positive since it has helped in saving multiple lives and hence it has been ethically right. However, upon using it in spinal structures, different patients end up passing on and this raises the question of the suitability of the drug (Cervinski 188). In the other case, an unethical culture of the TAP Pharmaceuticals is revealed by Douglas Durand upon taking the post of the vice president of the company. This indicates a change in character that necessitated positive outcomes. Lastly, Texaco employs diversity as a strategy for enhancing the performance of the employees. The employees are engaged based on their credentials and their capacity to deliver the right services to the customers (Cervinski 189). To sum it all, the three case studies have indicated a pattern inclined towards the success of the organizations besides adhering to the ethical standards required I most organizations.
Various similarities and differences have been noted among the three dilemmas. The first similarity pertains the decisions made by the staff present in the different agencies tabled in the case study. It has been noted that the management or leaders arrived at decisions which were ethically right and served to fulfill the interests of the final consumer. For instance, Douglas Durand decided to use TAP Pharmaceuticals for its unethical practices such as bribery, offering Lupron samples for free or at a small discount and the failure of representatives to account for the free samples. This led to the company paying a fine of $875 and hence causing the operations of the company to be executed in an ethical manner (Lutomia et al., 55). Besides these, the differences in the dilemmas are in the way the solution is arrived at. In the case, "Bad to the Bone," the Norian substance is initially alleged to be fit for use in fractured bones and arms (Aier 47). However, controversy sets in after further research identifies that the drug formed dangerous blood clotting problems that could lead to death when mixed with blood (Lutomia et al., 61).
In the other two cases, the dilemma situations are resolved by revolutionary leaders within their organization. In the TAP Pharmaceuticals, Durand Douglas takes a significant step of suing the company, and this stimulates the incorporation of appropriate and ethical measures in its daily functions (Cervinski 188). Conversely, at Texaco, Bijur, the incoming CEO initiates appropriate action that increases the efficiency and effectiveness in the tasks performed by the company. Through his strategy of hiring, developing, and promoting a diverse workforce, women and minorities were hired, and this served to increase the profit margins of the company (Aier 54).
The variations experienced to determine the way they are resolved. In the scenario of "Bad to the Bone," further investigations identified the company to be in violation of the FDA rules. This led to the induction of four individuals besides the payment of a penalty of $23 million (Aier 59). In the case of TAP Pharmaceuticals, the company was issued with a higher penalty as compared to the previous case. Besides this, a 14 percent share was given to Durand for playing the whistleblower role in the company (Lutomia et al., 68). Lastly, the Texaco company resolved its issue through the hiring of a new CEO by the name of Bijur. Under the leadership of Bijur, the company succeeded to abolish discrimination, harassment, and retaliation at the workplace. This necessitated equality and fairness for all the employees of the enterprise, and hence the profitability of the company increased (Aier 66). This information informs us that despite the diversity of the strategies taken by various companies, the outcome arrived at is likely the same since it contributes to customer satisfaction.
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