Life stressors are common in
everybody’s life. Th...
Life stressors are common in
everybody’s life. There are always moments in life associated with sadness. In
some cases, these cases or instances of sadness are very severe, and thus a
person is diagnosed with depression. Depression is a great aspect of mental
health, and it is a very prevalent condition in the society. It is a condition
that affects how individuals feelings about themselves and this is very
influential of how they act. Depression
is associated with high levels of feelings of sadness which cases the loss of
interests in activities that a person once enjoyed. It results in the physical and emotional
problem. These problems affect people’s functionality at work and home.
Sometimes it becomes too severe that people with depression become suicidal.
Some of its symptoms include sad mood, loss of energy which is also associated
with fatigue, feelings of guilt and worthlessness, lack of sleep, lack of
concentration, loss of appetite and sometimes suicidal thoughts. On the other
hand, anxiety is associated with the feelings of worry and fear, and this is
usually very strong to the point that it affects a person’s functionality.
Anxiety is usually a normal thing for many people, however; sometimes it
becomes too strong that it changes to a disorder. Some of the types of anxiety
illnesses include fears, panic conditions, social nervousness and a generalized
anxiety disorder. Depression and anxiety are tow mental conditions that relate
to one another because they are mental and also affect the functionally of
individuals which may affect their lives. This paper thus explores various
literature to examine the different perspectives that exist about depression
According to Wolk et al.,
(2016), depression and anxiety are among the most common forms of illnesses
affecting the society as far as primary care is concerned. The two are
conditions that are interconnected, and this occurs whereby cases of depression
are always associated with anxiety. And those diagnosed with anxiety are
associated with depression. This is a factor that shows the dependency of two
conditions. Sometimes it becomes very difficult to differentiate between the
two conditions because they may occur together. However, there is a great need
for the differentiation of two condition to ensure that there are effective
diagnosis and treatment. The reason for the need for differentiation is because
they are two conditions that cause a high rate of mortality and morbidity in
the society. Since they are conditions
that most affect primary care, primary care practitioners are well placed in
identifying, a diagnosis and treatment of the condition (Wolk et al., 2016).
In most cases associated with
anxiety, patients have been found to have depression. Another fact is that more
than eighty percent of people diagnosed with depression are found to have
anxiety. Another fact is that both anxiety and depression disorders are
associated with a substance abuse disorder. There exists a great treatment gap
between rural and non-rural areas with many people with both disorders
remaining untreated (Wolk et al., 2016).
Anxiety and depression are
different forms one another. Anxiety is associated with having worried thoughts
and constant belief that something could go wrong. It is also characterized by
having feelings of apprehension of what can happen presently and in the future.
Another characteristic is the need for escaping factors that could cause more
anxiety. On the other hand, depression is characterized by feelings of
hopelessness and sadness. It is also associated with having little beliefs in
positive aspects of life (Wolk et al., 2016).
There is always a great need
for the differentiation between mania, anxiety, and depression. Depression on
its own is sometimes linked with many other conditions. A good example is a
bipolar disorder which is an example of a depressive disorder. Bipolar is
usually characterized by aspects of mania associated with bursts of energy.
This is a factor that can easily be confused with anxiety because the symptoms
are the same. But they are completely, and effective management of the conditions
depends on the ability to differentiate between the two. Depression and anxiety
have great similarities and commonalities associated with the functions of
neurotransmitters in the body. A good
example is the function of serotonin whose levels in the body influences both
anxiety and depression. Another neurotransmitter is as well as epinephrine have
effects on depression and anxiety.
Because of the common functions of these neurotransmitters, symptoms of
anxiety and depression sometimes look alike and is very difficult to
differentiate from one another (Ross, Hood & Short, 2016).
Another factor is the shared
functions makes one disorder contribute to the other one. A good example is
when anxiety leads to depression or vice versa. Another aspect to take into
attention is that both depression and anxiety feel natural because of the
functions of the neurotransmitters in the body which are part of the natural
functions of the body. This is a factor that causes reduced treatment because
most people feel that the depression and anxiety are natural characteristics of
the body’s functions. The body quickly believes that negative emotions
experienced are true and this makes it very difficult for people to accept that
they have a problem that needs immediate attention (Ross, Hood & Short,
Pathways of the disorders
Anxiety disorder is usually a
primary condition that offers a pathway for other disorders. It is a condition
that occurs when an individual is a child or while as an adolescent. Its onset
establishes a condition which then grows to be a disorder that affects the
lives of individuals. In most cases, anxiety leads to depression and occur
concomitant with one another. The main explanation for comorbid of the two
disorders is genetic characteristics of an individual. Another factor is associated with one
disorder leading up to the other. Apart from genetic factors, there exist many
hormonal factors that cause pathways for the development of both depression and
anxiety. Another factor associated with the aspect of pathways for the
disorders is that the first time episode for depression is usually as a result
of the existence of a stress event that triggers it (Lukaviciute et al. 2017).
However, as time goes by and
with the existence of several events, episodes of depression become spontaneous
meaning they do not need the existence of external events to occur. The symptomatology for both depression and
anxiety is usually vague because of the lack of specific aspects. It is for
this reason that comorbid depression and anxiety require careful examination of
history and investigations of the conditions to ensure that there are correct
diagnosis and treatment of each of the condition separately and also as a
comorbid. Another factor is associated
with the use of rating scales to identify the severity of the conditions. This
is a factor that ensures that both depression and anxiety receive appropriate
treatments (Lukaviciute et al. 2017).
The Impacts of Comorbid,
Anxiety and Depression
When handled as an individual
disorder, diagnosis and treatment are easy as compared to when they are
comorbid. This is because when together there is a high chance of more
impairment. Concurrence which is usually a common characteristic is associated
with a poor prognosis. Poor prognosis is usually as a result of inappropriate
diagnosis of the conditions when they occur concurrently. The poor prognosis
leads to great impacts on the functionally of an individual because of
ineffective treatment.In past cases, especially during the management of the
conditions, the severity of the symptoms of anxiety are usually left because
they correlate with those of depression.
Instead of offering a specific diagnosis of
anxiety healthcare practitioners cater to the needs of depression and this
result in the persistence of anxiety which can remain for decades without
proper treatment and other forms of management. This is a factor that is also
seen where many people do not go for treatments for both disorders and focus on
only one and this causes an inefficient use of treatments. This makes treatment
for comorbid anxiety and depression lack adequate benefits to people suffering (Lukaviciute
et al. 2017).
Anxiety and depression when
combined cause more severe effects on the social, physical, emotional and
psychological implications on individuals. They increase the chances of suicide
which is the ultimate symptom of severity. Together they offer great resistance
to different forms of treatment. This is because they are more severe hence
more powerful. It is for this reason that these conditions have to be isolated
and treated specifically with more focus on effective diagnosis and treatment.
This is because when they occur concurrently because of more problems than when
in isolation from one another (Xiaohui et al., 2017).
Depression and anxiety are
usually factors associated with behavior. In adolescents, there exists
high-risk behavior that results in the development of depression and anxiety.
Research shows that there is an associated and the relationship between risky
behaviors and mental conditions. Anxiety and depression are considered
conditions and factors that can be used to predict the existence of risky
behaviors among adolescents. Some of these risky behaviors include engaging in
activities with peers that involves smoking, drinking alcohol and high chances
of use of other drugs. Other risky behaviors identified include suicidal
thinking (Abasi et al., 2017).
As explained above, it is a
very important factor in delineating between depression and anxiety because of
the need for specializing interventions for the two. Identification of risky
behaviors among adolescents can be used to predict the existence of anxiety and
depression. They both have different characteristics which ought to be well
understood. There exist specific clinical criteria used for the recognition of
anxiety and depression. These criteria are important for distinguishing between
the different disorders and also exclude the symptoms of comorbid depression
and anxiety. Despite such specific
aspects of recognition, criteria used for diagnosis are not the same as the clinical
presentations (Xiaohui et al., 2017).
This thus necessitates
examination for more than one time. If features of anxiety are identified, then
a health care practitioner needs to explore other features of the other
possible conditions such as depression. This a great mechanism employed to
ensure that diagnosis and treatment are thorough especially when there is a
high chance comorbidity. Treatments for different conditions differ and thus
require specialized examination, diagnosis, and treatment (Abasi et al., 2017).
Behavior, Depression, and
Too many people consider
medications alone are not sufficient to treat depression and anxiety. These disorders are usually influenced by
personal choices and events. This means that they can easily control through the
change of various factors. Change in
behavior, though, as well as lifestyles are considered as some of the most
effective ways of treating depression and anxiety. They are associated with the identification
of what triggers these disorder and finding effective mechanisms of managing
them (Abasi et al., 2017).
Lakhiar, et al. (2017)
explores how lifestyle changes involve aspects of healthy living and other
factors. They include various steps associated with the manner in which people
live. They include regular exercising, having an adequate and regular sleep,
getting fresh air and having a balanced diet, finding a daily purpose and
reduce substance abuse. These are all factors associated with positive
developments of the social, mental and emotional well-being of individuals suffering
from depression and anxiety. A good program is needed to ensure that a person
adheres to a healthy lifestyle. Joining the gym and socializing allows an
individual to stay connected with the world which is important in staying fit,
eating healthy and developing positive relationships that ensure that an
individual grows physically, socially and emotionally (Bhujade, 2017).
Poor health results in health
deterioration that causes more stress. Having limited and irregular sleep
causes a lot of irritability which causes anxiety and ultimately depression.
Lifestyle changes are paramount in ensuring that individuals, change form
behaviors that trigger depression and anxiety. It reduces time spent on
engaging in risky behavior and allows an individual to engage in more
productive activities that make the healthy, social and emotionally fit.
Depression and anxiety make an individual inert. It is for this reason that
lifestyle changes are important to ensure that an individual remains active
(Lakhiar, et al. 2017).
Depression and anxiety are,
therefore, disorders that are very prevalent in society. They are unique mental
conditions. They are conditions that affect everyone and are sometimes called
normal aspects of life. In most cases, people consider them as natural
conditions, and it is for this reason that many people fail to get treatments.
However, depression and nervousness are among the foremost reasons of deaths
for adolescents and young adults. They are disorders that lead to suicides and
other thoughts of death. In most cases, disorders occur as comorbid whereby
they exist together as one, and this is usually a risky situation because of
inefficient and ineffective diagnosis and treatment. Anxiety and depression are
two different aspects of different symptoms. However, sometimes they overlap
and cause misdiagnosis which causes anxiety and depression prevalent mental
disorder. Another factor is that the disorders are high interrelated because
one sometimes leads to the other. More than eighty percent of patients
diagnosed with anxiety also have symptoms or end up developing depression. They
are conditions that require effective assessment, diagnosis, and treatments.
Behavior is a great factor that influences the development of anxiety and
depression. Risky behaviors, especially for adolescents, are important for the
prediction of anxiety and depression. Some of the important measures of
reducing anxiety and depression include adopting a healthy lifestyle associated
with regular exercise, eating healthy, having an adequate and regular sleep,
developing positive thoughts and engaging in positive social interactions
(Lakhiar et al. 2017).