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Tourism in Africa: A Tool for Development


  Tourism is an important export industry, and this has led to massive foreign exchange for the African continent. It is revealed that tourism receipts have amounted to about 7% of all the exports as per the year 2014. Tourism continues to...Read More


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  Tourism is an important export industry...

Tourism in Africa: A Tool for Development


 

Tourism is an important export industry, and this has led to massive foreign exchange for the African continent. It is revealed that tourism receipts have amounted to about 7% of all the exports as per the year 2014. Tourism continues to be one of the fastest growing and most dynamic sectors in the African economy. In spite of recent challenges such as epidemics, the industry of tourism has managed to achieve its potential in the creation of jobs, the boosting of economic growth in the continent and the reduction of poverty. The African continent has managed to see a 4.3% increase in the African continent, and this has seen good progress. In 2014, Africa led to welcome about 63 million tourist arrivals, and this is 5.8% of the total international arrivals figures. Africa holds about 3.5% of the global market share, and the main reason for this is that many tourists look to experience the authentic African cultural heritage, extraordinary wildlife as well as the dramatic landscape as well as exceptional landscapes of the African continent.

            African countries such as Egypt, Ethiopia, Morocco, and South Africa have seen the highest numbers of tourists in recent times, and this has also led to a rise in employment in the tourism industry. Small nations such as Seychelles, Cape Verde as well as Mauritius have seen the highest percentage of both direct as well as indirect tourism, and this has seen a large number of tourists in the nation. Tourism has the potential to help the African continent achieve its visions and objectives, and it will also inject more finances into other sectors[1]. It is also important to consider how tourism has helped to improve employment prospects in Africa. Tourism has made Africa more economically viable, and it is, therefore, essential to find the future stability of the tourism sector in Africa.

            An initiative speared by Casa Africa in collaboration with UNWTO and FITUR to put Africa on the map of world tourism has been successful. It has provided a platform for the sharing of experiences of policy measures which are taken to manage a successful brand for a destination. It has also looked to identify an integrated approach to harmonize a sustainable tourism brand. Despite the various challenges Africa remains as one of the major tourist destinations in the world. Efforts have been made to foster tourism development, and it will also deal with pertinent issues affecting the tourism sector. It will also be essential to provide a platform for sharing experiences of policy measures and also aimed at establishing a sustainable brand. Furthermore, it will be crucial to provide a platform for ensuring shared experiences of policy measures taken to manage a successful brand for a destination.

 It is also essential to identify an integrated approach to harmonize sustainable tourism with the protection of biodiversity and also highlighting how to involve the local community in conservation efforts. The forum offers ground for exploring and grooming well-established policies which foster sustainable tourism development and also allows for the maximization of benefits of investment and enhances public and private partnerships[2].The initiative will serve as an all-inclusive platform which brings together policymakers as well as international investors who are looking for business opportunities within the African market. It includes the exploration of innovative approaches aimed at ensuring sustainable business practices in the tourism sector.

`It is essential to understand the transformative benefits of direct investment as well as plan to grow the tourism sector in Continental Africa since this will have an economic as well as social and environmental interest to the nation. Tourism is essential because it positively impacts the job market and it also helps in the preservation of culture in the community. Increased tourism within the next few decades will create an exchange of learning as well as ideas, music, and fashion and this will have a significant effect on a global scale[3].Tourism has a major role to play in fostering development and creating increased participation in the global economy. Tourism gives the opportunity to impact national pride as especially since Africa has tourist destinations which are recognized on a global scale. Tourism in Africa could have a huge impact on the global tourism scene. Reshaping the tourism industry will include incorporating new values into traveling and marketing tourism aggressive.

                                                                                    Process

            Tourism has a major role to play in contributing to the gross economic growth and also giving employment. Most African countries face huge challenges in exploiting the potential of tourism. Tourism can be improved by increasing government involvement in the tourism sector. The government can begin by reducing visa bureaucracy and also improving information and communications technology as well as airports and transport infrastructure. Joint ventures can also be encouraged by both the local firms and the local hotel operators so that the ownership and the management of hotels can involve a mix of local as well as foreign capital. Local tour operators can also improve on the provision of online booking services, and this will ensure that tourists purchase tickets and destination packages directly from local suppliers as opposed to international tour operators. It is important to understand that investments in the tourism-related industry will have a positive effect on employment.

            The tourism related sector offers good prospects for boosting service exports for many African countries as part of the economic diversification strategy, as well as the airport, road, and more extensive construction projects, can help to provide opportunities for more labor-intensive activities, primarily through direct public procurement practices. African countries can also reduce leakages out of the tourism sector through fostering economic diversification[4].It will be essential to develop strong intersectional linkages as this will ensure more effective capture of tourist expenditures. A conducive policy framework will be critical in ensuring the effectiveness of national strategies aimed at promoting economic growth in the tourism sector. The productive investment will also be risky as it will drive growth creation as well as innovation and trade.

 Tourism plays a vital role in job creation, and it will, therefore, be essential to match the education and skills needs of young people, thus, ensuring the availability of jobs. Another critical aspect to this will be the implementation of additional measures aimed at promoting more vocational skills training such as simple apprenticeship schemes would help provide opportunities for more young unemployed people to be involved in the tourism industry. It is also important to recognize the critical role that women have in tourism and help promote female participation in the tourism sector. It is essential to assess how tourism will contribute to the realization of sustainable development in the African continent[5].Furthermore any plans of action will also consider the heterogeneity of the continent especially since African countries can create better linkages between tourism and other sectors of the economy and at the same time promoting economic diversification. African countries need to find ways of tapping the potential; of intraregional and intra African trade in tourism services and this includes the creation of a more conducive environment for greater diaspora engagement. It will be essential to bring together the tourism public and private sectors to exchange information and ideas as well as debate some of the presents and future challenges of tourism development on the continent.

 

                                                            Product Development Plan

 Human Capital will have a significant role to play in the development of the tourism industry in the African continent. Various issues need to be taken into account, and this will include increased mobility of visitors as well as using the human factor as a basis for tourism development. Aviation will have a pivotal role to play in tourism development and especially within the African continent. The tourism product development plan for the African continent aims at creating a sustainable environment which will promote tourism within the region. The management of tourism in the African continent is linked to policies which affect local development and creation of value in tourism. Sustainable tourism development policies aim at obtaining a balance between the cultural aspect as well as other essential factors. Tourism development aims at establishing a development guideline.

 It includes regulating tourism activity as well as creating and maintaining the right conditions and infrastructure for the promotion of tourism. It also provides training and specializing in human resources and also ensuring quality standards in tourism. The local community will also be involved in tourism activities. Another significant aspect of the product development plan consists of determining a planning process. It includes controlling development speeds and limits, and it also involves creating carrying capacity criteria and organizing the sector structure of local tourism sectors in the region[6].It will also be important to organize the tourism sector structure, and this will help to create a proper atmosphere for the promotion of tourism. Another important aspect of the product development plan is the definition of a market strategy. The market strategy will assist in the definition of targets for the organization as well as the determination of the tourist destination image as well as positioning. Another important aspect of this is linked to the definition of a marketing mix which will lead to more effective communication.

            The development plan will, therefore, aim at enhancing tourism development prospects in the African continent by promoting the use of tourism as an avenue for economic growth. African nations need to have a clear vision to respond to this scenario, and this will include developing a framework for investment and economic development in the region. It is also essential to ensure that the region maximizes its indigenous tourism potential in the future. Creating business opportunities and jobs for traditional owners is necessary. Such efforts will play a significant role in stimulating and strengthening the economy in the African continent. The African continent will also have to consider the implementation of new and emerging service delivery opportunities which can be explored in this particular aspect. The African continent provides an excellent opportunity for visitors top enjoy indigenous, cultural and natural experiences, and this will help increase the local tourism figures. The appropriate foundation of support and planning will help to establish new tourism products, and these will leverage off the existing indigenous as well as natural and cultural experiences.

 

Positives

            There are various positive aspects of tourism impact on the African economy. The tourism sector has brought significant employment opportunities to the African continent, and it has singlehandedly led to the creation of many jobs on the continent. There are a large number of people who have different opportunities in the tourism sector, and these include all the hotel staff in such an institution. Furthermore, the tourism sector also sources goods and products locally, and this has significantly boosted the local industry[7].Supporting industries such as retail and food production have also benefitted tremendously from the tourism industry as well. Tourism has led to increased spending in many local communities in Africa, and this has ensured that the economy has grown tremendously in the region. Tourism supports global trade and at the same time leads to the attainment of foreign exchange, therefore, boosting the local community. Tourism revenues have a positive effect on the strength of the currency and will usually be reintroduced back into the economy.

 Tourism has led to diversification, and this has increased the prosperity of African nations — the additional funds from tourism help to assist local companies which are struggling. It has been helpful especially for groups which lean on a single organization or where the number of industries is detrimental to the environment such as in the case of mines or manufacturing plants. Another important aspect of the tourism industry is that it has helped in the building of infrastructure. Additional revenue benefits local council and governments, and this means that more tax dollars are present and this allows the launching of public projects. Tourism has contributed to the improvement of infrastructure in Africa with the building of new roads as well as parks and the development of open space.

 Better facilities have led to more visitors, and this is of great benefit to residents. Tourism is of cultural interest as well, and the main reason for this is the fact that the sector gives the local community a unique identity and hence keeps its heritage. The residents are therefore able to maintain their traditions and culture and at the same time revealing the same for all the visitors to see. Tourism has had a significant role to play in helping in the preservation of the history of the region. It is also important to consider the environmental advantages of tourism and how this has impacted the African region[8].Many tour operators in Africa have managed to differentiate themselves from their counterparts especially through offering packages which have a different environmental twist. It has helped the environment deal with the influx of tourists, and at the same time, it has also helped create a positive image for tourism operators as well. Another advantage of tourism is the various prospects and opportunities that it brings to the African continent. It leads to the establishment of new services and products as well as facilities which are sustainable as per the local people alone. The tourists from the core of the customer base and are often targeted the business strategy that has enabled organizational success.

 

                                                                        Tourism Product Development

 It is essential to use tourism to meet the needs of the nation as well as international developing tourism market in Africa.Tourism products will also include human-made attractions such as hotels, resorts, restaurants as well as festivals and other activities for tourists. Proper tourisms layout can coordinate and adjust the seasonal pattern of visitation which will lead to the spread of tourism. Creating products and services specifically for the tourist population is essential. The initial stage of product development in tourism will involve the implementation of the motivation to travel. It is then followed by the basis of tourism which includes the use of resources and attractions which will be the basis of the destination. The next stage is the stage of innovation creation of opportunities and sufficient infrastructure for the tourist population.

 The next step will include communication, and this will consist of the disclosure of important issues affecting the tourist organization and this aims at ensuring better organizational understanding. It is therefore important to teach the values provided by the product as this will stimulate consumption. The final aspect of this is the result, and this will include the use of tourist products in the destination[9].The product creation process in tourism will require a proper management of different aspects relate to the tourist organization. It also includes effective supervision of product creation and ensuring that the market is satisfied with all on offer. All effects of the tourism products on offer will be considered and this aims at ensuring that there is continuity. All possible outcomes will be presented and risk management procedures implemented as well.

            It is also important  to understand and analyze the strategy used by the tourist orgaizatioon,After this is done then management will be streamlined at all levels for a better planning strategy. It will also be crucial to creating a professional management organization which will unite the public sector and private institutions. With such an organization the local economy will benefit because tourism within the locality is streamlined. The policy to be used should be formed using credible criterion which focuses on development, planning as well as marketing. It will also be essential to take into account the limits and the speed as well as priorities to be considered in the process.

            The management of the tourism destination will have to keep in line with the policies as well as the vision of the tourism board. It will also be essential to ensure that the creation of products is oriented towards specific markets and specific targets and that they can offer adequate products and also fulfill the needs and expectations of the market. There are various prospective areas which can be developed, and this will help improve tourism in the African continent[10].There are some "On Country" experiences in Africa and this help to improve the tourist  experience., There are various indigenous experiences and these incorporate remote accommodation options as well as high-end bush dining. Africa also has different remote island and sea country experiences as well as unique bird watching tours. There are also different cultural tours with indigenous guides, and these are popular with many tourists. These are various examples of activities which can interest the tourist population and it is essential to use such opportunities to help boost the tourism sector.

                                                            Fundamentals of TPD

            There are certain fundamental aspects of Tourist Product Development which need to be considered in this particular initiative. The tourist product consists of a combination of services, commodities and other material and immaterial items related to the tourism business. It includes the entire travel experience from leaving home up to the return. It also consists of the individual experience as well as the impressions and the things learned at the tourist destination[11].It is therefore essential to understand the specific features of various tourist products. Tourism as a product will also depend on multiple items that have no overruling influence, and these include weather, the character of the landscape and other factors. In many aspects, the customer will not influence the quality of the product offered in the tourist market. The product chain usually defines the structure of the tourism product.

 The number of essential elements also defines it, and these include preparation, travel to the destination as well as the stay and the travel back as well as other activities involved. The rest in the particular region is the regional product, and this consists of various parts. One of these parts can be defined as the program, lodging, eating, and additional services aspect. These items are not products, but after combining them, they can be part of a regional tourism product. A local product will often consist of three essential producers. These producers are the individual service providers, the travel agency or tour operator, and the destination management organizations.[12]These various parts should produce a local product, and each has its role to play. The individual service providers are responsible for providing the different components of the tourism products, and these include hotels as well as restaurants and guides. They also have a role to play in coordinating the offer and also generating the profit for the organization. The production of the tourist product will often lie in the hands of various stakeholders.

            The travel agency and tour operator will have a role to play in combining the services of others to one product. A percentage of the profits will go to the other providers, and it will be essential to increase the price of the total product. It may also include an effective combination of both of these methods. The regional tourism management is responsible for producing a regional product, and it will often include a tourist association, information Centre or the tourist department of the local administration. It creates a product which is consistent of items and services of other providers, but there is no direct selling as the product is provided to the sellers. The profit will be divided between the tour operators and the primary service providers. Regional product creation is not often definable, and there are various approaches which will usually be combined into practice. A package can be defined as a tourism product which is sold to a client directly or by a tour operator.

 It will often be produced in three steps, and these include the offering inventory, combining the offers for the package and its organization and also marketing of the box. The offer inventory consists of a detailed summary of everything that the particular region can offer. It includes the existing items in the market as well as the realizable activities and potential or the wished ones. It furthermore consists of natural and cultural heritage, and each of these elements will be seen as an independent service with a clear provider, price, and conditions. Another aspect of this includes a combination of offers for package and organization. It aims at creating a balanced composition considering issues such as quality, length as well as variability[13].The next step includes marketing the package, and this includes preparing the package, finding the proper market and identifying various aspects such as market segments, communication channels, and the sales methods. Tourism products have an essential role to play in sustainable development. The successful development of a product will ensure sufficient and profitable use of resources. It will also provide economic sustainability which provides that there are no resources lost. It will also be essential to consider other principles of sustainable tourism in each step of tourism product development.

                                    Present/Current Political Implications and Expectations for Rollout

            It is essential to consider the political implications of tourism development planning on the African continent. Tourism has an important role to play in the African continent, and the survival and growth of the African continent rely heavily on this sector. Tourism in Africa is more than an economic activity but more of a mass interaction of people demanding a wide range of services. It is therefore essential to manage the growth of the tourism sector and develop clear guidelines which will ensure that extension is compatible with both the national and sectoral objectives. However, there are instances where facilities are not accessible to the local residents, and this is an issue for concern. There are various implications which would have to be considered as well especially since these will impact the tourism sector. One major problem is the delineation of relative roles of the private as well as local and foreign tourism partners in developmental decisions in the continent.

            It is important to understand that these developmental decisions have wider economic consequences for the continent of Africa. Therefore, investors have to understand the implications of their actions in the overall interest of the long run sustainability of the tourism sector. Another effect the lack of sufficient human resources especially for reasons of delivering quality services for the tourists as well as enhancing skills of the workforce[14].Yet another implication is the fact that problems are facing the local tourism industries in Africa which are characterized by a large number of SME enterprises. Although SMEs have a major role to play in tourism most of them operate at the margin of survival. Furthermore, they also lack the proper experience needed to run the tourism business along the modern management principles. Furthermore, they also lack the proper experience to run tourism businesses along modern management principles.

 The nature of tourism also renders them uncompetitive, and they are unable to capitalize on the advantages which accrue from the economies of scale. The major challenge is for them to develop marketing strategies which would enable them to overcome some of these difficulties in selling their products. The nature of tourism demand renders them uncompetitive as they were unable to capitalize on the advantages which accrue from economies of scale. The real challenge is for them to develop marketing strategies which would enable them to overcome some of these difficulties and therefore sell their products. The traditional role of governments in Africa is to formulate policies for the tourism sector. However, this focus has now changed since these priorities have now shifted to the international tourism scene. Governments in Africa play a critical role in various areas such as policy creation as well as tourism and wildlife management.

            Tourism should be a significant government consideration in decision-making processes, and most tourism policies are designed to expand the tourism industry in Africa. A good number of wildlife attractions in African countries consist of delicate ecosystems, and retrogressive forms of human activity threaten these. It is therefore essential to implement African policies towards tourism and wildlife development which is based on more extensive local as well as national and international consultation. It will also be crucial to consider diversification and exploration in new areas of tourism such as rural tourism, ecotourism, and developmental tourism. Africa also needs to embrace available and quality technology to mainstream tourism and wildlife development in the region. Tourism has a significant role to play in the African economy and is essential to find feasible ways of developing the sector.

Bibliography

Booyens, Irma, and Christian M. Rogerson. "Unpacking the geography of tourism innovation in Western Cape Province, South Africa." Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series 31, no. 31 (2016): 19-36.

Butler, Gareth, and Christian M. Rogerson. "Inclusive local tourism development in South Africa: Evidence from Dullstroom." Local Economy 31, no. 1-2 (2016): 264-281.

Cornelissen, Scarlett. The global tourism system: Governance, development, and lessons from South Africa. Routledge, 2017

Edgell Sr, David L. Managing sustainable tourism: A legacy for the future. Routledge, 2016.

Gomez, Fernando, and Vzay Metuge. "Impacts of Sustainable Tourism within the South West Region of Cameroon." (2016),

Koens, Ko, and Rhodri Thomas. "Is small beautiful? Understanding the contribution of small businesses in township tourism to economic development." Development Southern Africa 32, no. 3 (2015): 320-332.

Mowforth, Martin, and Ian Munt. Tourism and sustainability: Development, globalization and new tourism in the third world. Routledge, 2015.

Rogerson, Christian M. "Tourism–a new economic driver for South Africa." In Geography and economy in South Africa and its neighbors, pp. 95-110. Routledge, 2017.

Sharpley, Richard, and David J. Telfer. Tourism and development in the developing world. Routledge, 2015.

Visser, Gustav. Urban tourism in the developing world: The South African experience. Routledge, 2017.

Webster, Craig, and Stanislav Ivanov. "Transforming competitiveness into economic benefits: Does tourism stimulate economic growth in more competitive destinations?." Tourism Management 40 (2014): 137-140.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



[1]              Mowforth, Martin, and Ian Munt. Tourism and sustainability: Development, globalization and new tourism in the third world. Routledge, 2015.

[2]              Rogerson, Christian M. "Tourism–a new economic driver for South Africa." In Geography and economy in South Africa and its neighbors, pp. 95-110. Routledge, 2017.

[3]Cornelissen, Scarlett. The global tourism system: Governance, development, and lessons from South Africa. Routledge, 2017

 

[4]Sharpley, Richard, and David J. Telfer. Tourism and development in the developing world. Routledge, 2015.

 

[5]Mowforth, Martin, and Ian Munt. Tourism and sustainability: Development, globalization and new tourism in the third world. Routledge, 2015.

 

[6]          Visser, Gustav. Urban tourism in the developing world: The South African experience. Routledge, 2017.

[7]Visser, Gustav. Urban tourism in the developing world: The South African experience. Routledge, 2017.

 

[8]Webster, Craig, and Stanislav Ivanov. "Transforming competitiveness into economic benefits: Does tourism stimulate economic growth in more competitive destinations?." Tourism Management 40 (2014): 137-140.

 

[9]Edgell Sr, David L. Managing sustainable tourism: A legacy for the future. Routledge, 2016.

Gomez, Fernando, and Vzay Metuge. "Impacts of Sustainable Tourism within the South West Region of Cameroon." (2016),

 

[10]           Koens, Ko, and Rhodri Thomas. "Is small beautiful? Understanding the contribution of small businesses in township tourism to economic development." Development Southern Africa 32, no. 3 (2015): 320-332.

[11] Rogerson, Christian M. "Tourism–a new economic driver for South Africa." In Geography and economy in South Africa and its neighbors, pp. 95-110. Routledge, 2017.

 

[12]           Booyens, Irma, and Christian M. Rogerson. "Unpacking the geography of tourism innovation in Western Cape Province, South Africa." Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series 31, no. 31 (2016): 19-36.

[13]           Koens, Ko, and Rhodri Thomas. "Is small beautiful? Understanding the contribution of small businesses in township tourism to economic development." Development Southern Africa 32, no. 3 (2015): 320-332.

[14]    Edgell Sr, David L. Managing sustainable tourism: A legacy for the future. Routledge, 2016.

                Gomez, Fernando, and Vzay Metuge. "Impacts of Sustainable Tourism within the South West Region of Cameroon." (2016),



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