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Kelleher, T., & Sweetser, K. (2012). Social Media Adoption among University Communicators. Journal of Public Relations Research24(2), 105-122.

1.       The aim of the research was to comprehend the process of adopting university communicators and the reason as to why they incorporate the use of social media in their programs of communication. I believe the author began the research with an aim of enlightening people regarding the methods of university communicators used. Social networking presents a well-known arrangement of apparatuses that permit advertising specialists extra chances to build up and develop connections and draw in their publics. The writer utilizes online networking stages, for example, Facebook, YouTube, Wikipedia, and web journals to clarify the college communicators. On top of this idea, University communicators traverse the limits between the understudy groups expected to have effectively embraced online networking and the college experts feeling the gravity of the decisions they should make with respect to new media.

2.      The author uses the public relations theory to study and identify new forms of communication. These forms emerge each day in public relations thereby providing a fruitful and scholastic approach towards social media. The fundamental standard of the hypothesis depends on the reason in the matter of why a large number of the most suitable inquiries for concentrate web-based social networking can be produced in light of research on prior media developments. With regards to contacting particular gatherings of people was high on the rundown of inspirations for the advertising specialists. Additionally, advertising hypothesis will be educated further by investigation into the reception of media developments that interface college communicators with their by and large more youthful key publics.

3.      H1 “What is the concern and processes linked with the adoption of the system among the practitioners whose main publics include the stakeholders in the social media platform? Additionally, the hypothesis aims at understanding the perceptions learned from the university communicators with regards to the social media diffusion in terms of public relations. The author reached the research questions and hypothesis based on the way social media plays a critical role towards public relations (pg. 106).

H2 “A considerable lot of the most suitable inquiries for concentrate web-based social networking can be created in view of research on prior media developments. In view of this theory, experts were worried about polished skill and the worry of satisfying what should be done while confronting expanding workload desires.” In this manner, advertising hypothesis will be educated further by investigation into the selection of media advancements that associate college communicators with their for the most part more youthful key publics.

4.      This review utilized a nonrandom purposive examining strategy. Specialists led subjective meetings of 26 college communicators over the United States The first round of interviewees were chosen after analysts recognized online networking devices on unit Web locales. All communicators talked with talked for the benefit of their units, which had effectively embraced no less than one web-based social networking apparatus to be chosen to partake in the review.

5.      Members included 17 female professionals and 9 male specialists. The number was appropriate for the study since it was purposive and the respondents were selected at random from the different social media associations.

6.      The research was conducted well also, raised numerous other queries that can be concentrated further. It realizes the suggestion that big name endorsers may have impressive power in producing more consideration and association. This examination did not explore levels of association. Future research might be done to decide whether advertising has a vital impact towards social communicators in their publics.

7.      Most of the questions were answered in the article and none has been left for speculation. Therefore, the questions that emerged are linked with the impact of social media in the near future.






COM 3435 S2015

Stafford., M. R., Spears, N. E., & Hsu, C. (2003). Celebrity images in magazine advertisements:

An application of the visual rhetoric model. Journal of Current Issues and Research in

Advertising, 25(2), 13-20.

1. I think the authors started this research in order to better understand the visual association

of celebrity gender to product, presentation, and purpose. The goal of this research was

to understand how celebrities communicate meaning. They focus on the image that the

celebrity gender conveys and their influence on how an individual responds to an


The authors apply the visual rhetoric model to celebrity gender images in magazine

advertisements. This model proposes that visual elements used in advertisements are

drawn from a field of potential images and that a subset of the possible visual elements is

comprised of celebrity endorsers. An advertiser using celebrity endorsers to represent the

product benefits chooses from a variety of endorser types to create the persuasive

message. The VRM suggests that advertisers choose visual elements that are related to

the advertised products and benefits. Then, the advertiser applies these choices to

product benefits through gestalt process to create unit connections. The messages are

then carried by the media to consumers. These are driven by theories.

2. “H1: Proportionately more male celebrities than female celebrities are associated with

visual plus verbal images while proportionately more female celebrities than male

celebrities are associated with visual only images” (p.15).


“H2: Proportionately more male celebrities than female celebrities are associated with

products containing functional benefits, while proportionately more female celebrities

than male celebrities are associated with products containing psychosocial benefits”


“H3: Proportionately more visual celebrity images than visual plus verbal celebrity

images are associated with psychosocial benefits, while proportionately more visual plus

verbal celebrity images than visual celebrity images are associated with functional

benefits” (p.16).

3. To observe these hypotheses, an exploration study was conducted. Content analysis was

used to investigate current advertising use of celebrity endorsers in magazine advertising.

A convenience sampling method was employed. Participants collected ads from national

magazines for the year of 1999. Duplicate ads, ads containing both males and females,

and ads containing multiple celebrity endorsers were discarded. A total of 232

advertisements were left for data coding and analysis. Two student judges were also

trained to content analyze the ads using the coding scheme developed for the study. The

authors used appropriate research methods in order to understand the advertiser’s

intentions and desired audience.

4. The research participants used included a total of 129 (64 males and 65 females)

undergraduate students. Two student judges were trained to content analyze data using

the coding scheme developed for the study. This was an appropriate population to study

because students are considered to be as powerful a convenience sample as any other

conveniently available group.


5. Hypothesis 1 proposes that more male celebrities (62.9%) as compared to female

celebrities (37.1%) are associated with the visual plus verbal presentation style. For ads

using the visual presentation style, 65.1% of the celebrities were female compared to

34.9% of them being male. Hypothesis 2 is supported, declaring that a higher proportion

of male celebrities is associated with products containing functional benefits and female

celebrities are believed to be associated with products possessing psychosocial benefits.

Results for hypothesis 3 were mixed, showing that 92.4% of the visual celebrity images

are associated with psychosocial benefits as compared to 7.6% of the dual presentation

mode. However, 61.3% of the visual presentation mode ads are associated with the

functional product category as compared to 38.7% of the visual plus verbal presentation

model. So, hypothesis 3 received partial support.

6. This study was well done, and raised many other questioned that can be studied further.

It brings about the implication that celebrity endorsers may have considerable power in

generating more attention and involvement. This research did not investigate levels of

involvement. Future research may be done to determine if female celebrities are selected

as endorsers to help transmit a harmonious meaning to the product while male celebrities

are chosen to portray a more functional meaning. More questions are raised on how

males and females may respond to a combination of strategies in an attempt to create

functional benefits with more psychosocial outcomes and vice versa.

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