T., & Sweetser, K. (2012). Social M...
T., & Sweetser, K. (2012). Social Media Adoption among University
Communicators. Journal of Public Relations Research, 24(2),
aim of the research was to comprehend the process of adopting university
communicators and the reason as to why they incorporate the use of social media
in their programs of communication. I believe the author began the research
with an aim of enlightening people regarding the methods of university
communicators used. Social networking presents a well-known arrangement of
apparatuses that permit advertising specialists extra chances to build up and
develop connections and draw in their publics. The writer utilizes online
networking stages, for example, Facebook, YouTube, Wikipedia, and web journals
to clarify the college communicators. On top of this idea, University
communicators traverse the limits between the understudy groups expected to
have effectively embraced online networking and the college experts feeling the
gravity of the decisions they should make with respect to new media.
author uses the public relations theory to study and identify new forms of
communication. These forms emerge each day in public relations thereby
providing a fruitful and scholastic approach towards social media. The
fundamental standard of the hypothesis depends on the reason in the matter of
why a large number of the most suitable inquiries for concentrate web-based
social networking can be produced in light of research on prior media
developments. With regards to contacting particular gatherings of people was
high on the rundown of inspirations for the advertising specialists.
Additionally, advertising hypothesis will be educated further by investigation
into the reception of media developments that interface college communicators
with their by and large more youthful key publics.
“What is the concern and processes linked with the adoption of the system among
the practitioners whose main publics include the stakeholders in the social
media platform? Additionally, the hypothesis aims at understanding the
perceptions learned from the university communicators with regards to the
social media diffusion in terms of public relations. The author reached the
research questions and hypothesis based on the way social media plays a
critical role towards public relations (pg. 106).
H2 “A considerable lot of
the most suitable inquiries for concentrate web-based social networking can be
created in view of research on prior media developments. In view of this
theory, experts were worried about polished skill and the worry of satisfying
what should be done while confronting expanding workload desires.” In this
manner, advertising hypothesis will be educated further by investigation into
the selection of media advancements that associate college communicators with
their for the most part more youthful key publics.
review utilized a nonrandom purposive examining strategy. Specialists led
subjective meetings of 26 college communicators over the United States The
first round of interviewees were chosen after analysts recognized online
networking devices on unit Web locales. All communicators talked with talked for
the benefit of their units, which had effectively embraced no less than one
web-based social networking apparatus to be chosen to partake in the review.
included 17 female professionals and 9 male specialists. The number was
appropriate for the study since it was purposive and the respondents were
selected at random from the different social media associations.
research was conducted well also, raised numerous other queries that can be
concentrated further. It realizes the suggestion that big name endorsers may
have impressive power in producing more consideration and association. This
examination did not explore levels of association. Future research might be
done to decide whether advertising has a vital impact towards social
communicators in their publics.
of the questions were answered in the article and none has been left for
speculation. Therefore, the questions that emerged are linked with the impact
of social media in the near future.
JOURNAL ARTICLE REVIEW
COM 3435 S2015
Stafford., M. R., Spears, N.
E., & Hsu, C. (2003). Celebrity images in magazine advertisements:
An application of the visual
rhetoric model. Journal of Current Issues and Research in
Advertising, 25(2), 13-20.
1. I think the authors started
this research in order to better understand the visual association
of celebrity gender to product,
presentation, and purpose. The goal of this research was
to understand how celebrities
communicate meaning. They focus on the image that the
celebrity gender conveys and
their influence on how an individual responds to an
The authors apply the visual
rhetoric model to celebrity gender images in magazine
advertisements. This model
proposes that visual elements used in advertisements are
drawn from a field of potential
images and that a subset of the possible visual elements is
comprised of celebrity
endorsers. An advertiser using celebrity endorsers to represent the
product benefits chooses from a
variety of endorser types to create the persuasive
message. The VRM suggests that
advertisers choose visual elements that are related to
the advertised products and
benefits. Then, the advertiser applies these choices to
product benefits through
gestalt process to create unit connections. The messages are
then carried by the media to
consumers. These are driven by theories.
2. “H1: Proportionately more
male celebrities than female celebrities are associated with
visual plus verbal images while
proportionately more female celebrities than male
celebrities are associated with
visual only images” (p.15).
“H2: Proportionately more male
celebrities than female celebrities are associated with
products containing functional
benefits, while proportionately more female celebrities
than male celebrities are
associated with products containing psychosocial benefits”
“H3: Proportionately more
visual celebrity images than visual plus verbal celebrity
images are associated with
psychosocial benefits, while proportionately more visual plus
verbal celebrity images than
visual celebrity images are associated with functional
3. To observe these hypotheses,
an exploration study was conducted. Content analysis was
used to investigate current
advertising use of celebrity endorsers in magazine advertising.
A convenience sampling method
was employed. Participants collected ads from national
magazines for the year of 1999.
Duplicate ads, ads containing both males and females,
and ads containing multiple
celebrity endorsers were discarded. A total of 232
advertisements were left for
data coding and analysis. Two student judges were also
trained to content analyze the
ads using the coding scheme developed for the study. The
authors used appropriate
research methods in order to understand the advertiser’s
intentions and desired
4. The research participants
used included a total of 129 (64 males and 65 females)
undergraduate students. Two
student judges were trained to content analyze data using
the coding scheme developed for
the study. This was an appropriate population to study
because students are considered
to be as powerful a convenience sample as any other
conveniently available group.
5. Hypothesis 1 proposes that
more male celebrities (62.9%) as compared to female
celebrities (37.1%) are
associated with the visual plus verbal presentation style. For ads
using the visual presentation
style, 65.1% of the celebrities were female compared to
34.9% of them being male.
Hypothesis 2 is supported, declaring that a higher proportion
of male celebrities is
associated with products containing functional benefits and female
celebrities are believed to be
associated with products possessing psychosocial benefits.
Results for hypothesis 3 were
mixed, showing that 92.4% of the visual celebrity images
are associated with
psychosocial benefits as compared to 7.6% of the dual presentation
mode. However, 61.3% of the
visual presentation mode ads are associated with the
functional product category as
compared to 38.7% of the visual plus verbal presentation
model. So, hypothesis 3
received partial support.
6. This study was well done,
and raised many other questioned that can be studied further.
It brings about the implication
that celebrity endorsers may have considerable power in
generating more attention and
involvement. This research did not investigate levels of
involvement. Future research
may be done to determine if female celebrities are selected
as endorsers to help transmit a
harmonious meaning to the product while male celebrities
are chosen to portray a more
functional meaning. More questions are raised on how
males and females may respond
to a combination of strategies in an attempt to create
functional benefits with more
psychosocial outcomes and vice versa.