The American civil occurred between 1861 and 1865. For the four years, over six hundred and twenty thousand soldiers (620,000) lost their lives in the battle and thousands were injured and the population in the southern America was left devastated. The war was an inter-state one between the states in the north and those in the south over issues of expanding towards the west, states’ right versus federal superiority and slavery. The election of a Republican president by the name Abraham Lincoln and who was against slavery stirred the war where seven southern states withdrew their alliance with union forming the Confederate States of America. The confederation was later joined by four more states after the first shots of the civil war were fired. As a result, the country was led into a four-year war that marked in history the battles at Antietam, Manassas (Bull Run), Vicksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg among many others. A number of events took place within the four years which helped shape the America we have today (McPherson, Dr. James).
Among the events that took place during the civil war is Confederate forcefully holding Sumter Fort in Charleston, South Carolina. When President Lincoln sent a fleet of soldiers to go and take back Fort Sumter from the Confederate forces, they fired the first shots as a way of the rebellion starting the civil war. The commander of Fort Sumter surrendered to the Confederate after two days of resistance leaving it in the hands of the Confederate forces which was under the command of Pierre G.T. Beauregard. After acquiring the fort of Sumter, four more states joined the Confederacy. The regions were Tennessee, Virginia, North Carolina and Arkansas. Although the border states did not enter the Confederate, it is believed that there existed confederate sympathizers among the citizens in these states.
Battle of First Manassas
During civil war, this was the first significant clash under the command of General Beauregard. The Union military believed that they could overcome the Confederacy soon where there would be less loss of lives three months before the American war commenced. As a result of the overconfidence by the northern Virginia general, General McDowell, he led a troop of 34,000 inexperienced and poorly trained soldiers to the war with the confederate. The battle was not as simple as the general had anticipated as they ended up losing over 3000 soldiers where some of them died, others were wounded, and others were just missing. The Confederacy, on the other hand, lost 2000 of their men. The war was horrific to both the spectators and the United States government whose significant challenge was now on the strategy to use to defeat the rebellion in the south (History.com).
The Trent Affair
In November 1861, a U.S Navy Officer by the name Charles Wilkes captured two members of the Confederate force that were boarding the British mail ship by the name Trent. As a result, Britain accused the U.S of violating the neutrality of Britain. The accusations caused a diplomatic crisis between the two countries. Amidst all the crisis surrounding the situation, by the end of December the same year, the U.S had resolved the issue with the Great Britain restoring the neutrality of Britain in the matter of the U.S government and the Confederate movement ("Milestones: 1861–1865 - Office Of The Historian").
Enlisting black soldiers
Prior the civil war, black soldiers were prohibited to join the army but instead unofficially participated in the 1812 revolutionary war. However, in mid-1862, President Lincoln realized that he needed as many soldiers as he could get to defeat the Confederate. The number of white soldiers was decreasing, and the Black Americans became more anxious to participate in the war. The Africa Americans formed several units in Louisiana, where the first, second and third were formed. The formation of these groups was taking place in 1892, and in January 1863 they were officially mustered into the service (History.com).
The Emancipation Proclamation
On the 22nd September 1862 president, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation. The proclamation stated that all the slaves in the states that would still be under the rule of the Confederate by the 1st of January 1863, would be set free. The declaration was just a few days after the Confederate defeated the union during the battle of Antietam. With the statement, Lincoln hoped to inspire the African Americans held as slaves in the Confederate ruled region and as a result, win them and redeem the union. Lincoln also desired to prevent France and Britain from recognizing the Confederacy as a political entity or provide military aid to them ("Our Documents - Emancipation Proclamation (1863)").
Assassination of President Lincoln
A sympathizer of the Confederate and also a famous actor, John Wilkes Booth assassinated President Lincoln on the 14th of April 1865. The killing happened just five days after Confederate general lee relinquished himself alongside his battalion. The surrender had marked a halt of the Civil war. The assassination was the last attempt by the Confederate sympathizers of saving it. They had planned to kill the vice president too but only managed to kill the president (History.com Staff).
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