Article one: Toddlers Master Everyday Activities in Kindergarten: A Gender Perspective
This article is about research conducted among 2-year-old kindergarten kids on how they cope with various daily activities as well as their knowledge and creativity as observed by the staff from a gender perspective. The research study involved collecting data through structured observation of a sample of 509 girls and 535 boys. The children whose age ranged between 30 and 33 months observed for a three months period. The “Alle Med” alias “Everyone Included” observation guideline material was used to assessment. The results reveal gender disparities favoring girls. The article further analyzes the results against a backdrop of gender-related theory (Meland, Kaltvedt, & Reikerås, 2015).
The daily activities in the research project (“The Stavanger Project-The Learning Child”,) constitute part of the observation concerning social and emotional development. Pramling and Sheridan (1999) described the day to day activities as routine situations. The everyday activities contribute to the learning and development of children. The situation for toddlers, in this case, is a matter of nurturing independence in executing tasks creatively through self-knowledge, talents and abilities as well as mastering common activities after being coached by teachers.
The research findings or ideas are similar to several other previous theses presented by different scholars. They all show that girls are more competent and intellectual than boys. Qualitative studies revealed by (Eidevald 2009; Månsson 2000, 2011; Jonsdottir 2007; Johansson and Emilson 2010) through interviews with kindergarten personnel observed that girls and boys are attributed different properties and hence the difference in values. Boys are described as physically active but need physical contact and affection whereas girls are capable, independent and compliant. Therefore teachers ought to cultivate creativity through different means especially from young boys.
Article two: Creativity and Cultural Innovation in Early Childhood Education
This (2006) particular issue was inspired by a symposium on young children’s music at a Society for Education, Music and Psychology Research (SEMPRE) meeting in 2004 and a three-day workshop on Cultural Education and Creativity held at the fifth Warwick International Early Years Conference in 2005. There were fascinating presentations from very young children on both occasions about their creative activities and culture. Delegates made several general agreements following the events. First, creativity and culture would be regarded as dynamic dimensions of children’s activities which are socially constructed through interaction with the environment and other people. Second, that there were links between cultural and creative education that have significant implications for practice in the early years and pedagogy.
The Robinson Report in the UK spells everything to do with education, culture, and creativity. Crucial recommendations included the following;
· Teachers and other personnel should be trained to use materials and methods that will help nurture the development of young people’s cultural understanding and creative abilities.
· The necessity for explicit recognition of creative and artistic education in school and government policies for the entire curriculum.
· Need for partnerships between outside agencies and schools to provide the creative and cultural education that young children deserve and need.
The Robinson Report and its recommendation paved the way for a series of publications and researches done by educational researchers, practitioners and policy makers. ("Creativity and Cultural Innovation in Early Childhood Education", 2016). Significant steps have so far been widely made as far as early childhood creative and cultural education is concerned. Partnerships between creative professionals, schools, and outside agencies from all the areas in ICT, arts and sciences are also happening through different initiatives. Other research ideas concerning young children’s creative and cultural education are almost similar to the Robinson report.
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