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Vaccination

Vaccination

Posted on Aug 2017:- By: PaperHub
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Vaccination is broadly considered as being among the greatest medical accomplishments of the contemporary civilization. Childhood infections that were common less than a decade ago are now progressively rare due to vaccines. In order to attain efficiency at eradicating infectious diseases, vaccines ought to be administered to an adequate number of persons in the community. As a result of this, the officials in public health have directed vaccination for particular diseases as a situation to school attendance (Beverley et al. 15). In today’s world, we have access to outstanding healthcare that has new advances in their fields all of the time. Because of our great system, we can cure many bacterial infections and help stop the spread of others. We have even almost “cured” many diseases that ran rampant in earlier times. Through vaccinating our children, we have been able to stop potential diseases in its tracks and even keep it from spreading with our “herd immunity.” But what are the risks of vaccinating? Do they outweigh the controversies that surround them and their potential side effects? T.S.1 (personal narrative): My grandmother wasn’t vaccinated for the polio disease, and ended up contracting polio and was paralyzed in her right arm and weakened in her left. Science has proven the lasting effects of vaccination benefits the population more than harms. Some benefits such as the almost eradication of diseases like polio and smallpox or reduced the outbreak of diseases such as smallpox or seasonal influenza.

Administration of vaccines gives immunity to an individual prior to the disease having an opportunity to make that individual sick. Beverley et al. asserts “vaccines are manufactured from the similar germs that are the source of the illness. However, the germs that are incorporated into the vaccines are killed or are made less strong so as to prevent making individuals be sick” (90). The vaccines, which have the weakened germs, are incorporated into the individuals’ body following receipt of vaccination. The immune system of the individual then reacts to the vaccine in the same manner that it would, if it were attacked by the real disease, through the manufacture of antibodies. The manufactured antibodies formed destroy the germs in the vaccine, and then they remain in the body so as to offer a continuous immunity to a specific disease. After that, if an individual is ever exposed to that particular disease, the antibodies provide protection so that it is not likely for an individual to get the disease. According to the World Health Organization, children ought to receive five major vaccines. They include: The Chicken Pox Vaccine, Hepatitis vaccine, Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, Hip Vaccine, as well as Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccine.

Side effects: Vaccination may lead to potential side effects that may be harm the person receiving vaccination. According to Wolk, “Any vaccine has the potential of causing side effects.” (23). Like any other medicine, a vaccine may cause very severe reaction. However, Caulkinset al. (43) asserts that the risk of death resulting from vaccination is very minimal. For instance, Pitcairn (54) presents the side effects that the Adenovirus vaccine has to its patients. The side-effects range from mild to severe complications. The mild side-effects that are associated with Adenovirus vaccine include headaches, fever, diarrhea, abdominal pain, as well as sore throat. According to the Center for Disease Control, these mild problems, usually, occur within two weeks following the administration of the vaccine (Beverley et al.45). The severe problems related to this vaccine may take place within six months after administration of the vaccine. The severe problems include the presence of blood in the urine, inflammation of the stomach, as well as pneumonia.

Vaccination has led to full curing of some diseases by eradicating them totally. Eradication is the lessening of the prevalence of an infectious disease from a global host population to a zero point. According to a report by the WHO, so far, there are two diseases that have been finally eradicated from the population successfully. These diseases are small pox and Rinderpest. Smallpox affects human beings whereas Rinderpest different ruminants. Smallpox is believed to be the first disease among human beings that was infectious, and which was eradicated by means of deliberate intervention. Beverley al. (65) asserts that it was the first disease, which an efficient vaccine was developed in 1798.

It is important that all people be vaccinated so as to offer protection from particular diseases. This is because some diseases that people receive vaccination are very infectious, and failure to vaccinate them may lead to infecting a bigger portion of the population. For instance, vaccinations for flu-related complications are important to be given to the general population as some of them are highly infectious. For instance, pneumonia is a flu-related complication, and failure for a person to receive treatment for the infection may lead to him/her infecting other people at the place of work or even at home. Therefore, the government should make sure that vaccination for particular infections is mandatory to all people.

The availability of vaccines in different countries is a key concern in the administration of vaccines to the global population. Whereas in the developed world there is an adequate supply of vaccines, many developing nations face inadequate supply of vaccines to administer to their citizens. According to Beverley et al., “every year, there are approximately 2.1 million people globally who die from diseases that are vaccine-preventable. These deaths are hugely attributed to the lack of vaccinations, which may arise due to their unavailability. Beverley et al. asserts “the unavailability of vaccines in various parts of the world is as well attributed to a failure in the health systems that those nations adopt. As a result, the WHO in conjunction with the ministries of health in these nations have partnered to ensure that every child receive vaccinations for diseases such as polio and smallpox” (70).

Vaccinations can fight some bacterial as well as viral infections. The human body is prone to infections resulting from various bacteria as well as viruses. Vaccination is responsible for inducing immunity into the body, therefore protecting an individual from infections that may occur in the future. This is why deadly infections like smallpox that were horrendous in the past have now been dealt with. It is likely to vaccinate people against a lot of severe viral infections such as hepatitis A&B, as well as measles. There has been a success, for instance, in the eradication of smallpox. However, there are other viral infections such as the HIV virus that are difficult to be fought by means of vaccination. This is attributed to the viruses’ constant mutation that enables it to keep dodging the immune system that the body provides. Therefore, there is a difficulty in developing vaccinations against such kind of viruses because before a vaccine has been developed, the virus has by then changed its’ format, and hence the vaccine cannot cure the infection.

Vaccination against the different infections is responsible in assisting the human body in performing its job. The function of the immune system in the human body is to provide immunity against infections that may attack it (Beverley et al. 98). The human body is prone to the attack from different viruses and bacteria. Viruses present a significant challenge to the immune system, as they hide within the body cells. Vaccines capitalize on the body’s natural capacity to be able to learn how every disease-causing microbe invades it. However, the immune system is as well important in fighting off the infection, and vaccines rely on it so as to function properly. Vaccines can “remember” particular infections, and assist the antibodies in fighting off these infections.

Vaccinations have had a tremendous effect on the way in which human beings currently lives. Most of the effects of vaccination are positively influenced how we live. For instance, vaccinations have enabled people to have a long life by making sure that they do not die due to diseases that might be prevented. Smallpox was responsible for causing a lot of deaths during the past, but through the development of a vaccine for the disease facilitated its ultimate eradication from the world. In addition, vaccinations have facilitated the well-being of human beings in these contemporary times. Vaccination against diseases such as polio has enabled people not to be crippled after losing some body parts to this disease. By so doing, vaccinations have made sure that people lead a healthy life and that there is a reduction in the mortality rates resulting from such diseases.

Religious Beliefs: there are particular religions as well as belief systems that enhance alternative perspective in relation to the administration of vaccines to children. According to Beverley et al., “most of the religious objections towards vaccination are founded on ethical dilemmas, the belief regarding the sacredness of the body, and that healing should only emanate from God, and not chemicals that are derived from other animals” (116). There has been a rise in religious vaccine exemption during recent years. There are a number of States in the U.S that allow people to apply for exemption from mandatory vaccines on the basis of their religious beliefs as well as objections. This has resulted into media attention as well as controversy. This is because the permission of the exemption by these religious groups may result in the spread of infectious diseases, thereby posing a serious health threat to the whole population.

One of the concerns that are facing the subject of vaccination is the issue of some group of people refusing to receive a vaccination on the grounds of their religious views. It is important to consider the question of whether it is practicable for a person to decline to receive a vaccination on the basis of the religious viewpoints held. According to Beverley et al. (93), there have been increasing cases of people who are using religion as a ground of exempting their children from receiving mandatory vaccines. Vaccinations are a major reason as to why people have a chance of having a prolonged healthy life. Any child who does not receive vaccines is at a higher risk of dying in cases he/she is invaded by a disease such as meningitis. However, religious objectors are not exempted constitutionally from receiving vaccinations.

Insurance does not make a difference for vaccines. Whereas insurance covers protect people in case they develop a particular health complication, vaccines prevent the diseases from invading the immune system, hence protecting an individual from falling sick. Insurance cover may not prevent someone from being infected by a disease such as polio, but it entails covering the costs that might arise from the treatment of the disease. These costs include hospital charges, physicians’ fees, as well as medicine costs. Conversely, most of the vaccines are provided freely by the government. Hence, there are no costs involved. As a result, vaccines cannot be substituted by insurance cover.

Government’s Role in Vaccination: the government plays an imperative role in ensuring that its citizens have access to vaccinations against diseases. In the U.S., the government does take part in different roles in the immunization programs (Beverley et al. 32). Even though the production of the vaccines is done by private corporations, in addition to immunization policies being set individually in all the states, different government agencies are involved in the regulation of vaccines production, purchases, as well as availing them to states.  The U.S. have vaccination policies that are aimed at providing immunity to diseases that are preventable. The government also makes sure that infections do not spread by funding health researchers so as to develop the efficient vaccine against particular infections. The major government’s responsibility should be to eliminate the risk of outbreak of diseases, through its various institutions.

No individual ought to risk his or her health by not taking vaccination on the basis of personal, religious, or moral points of view. Vaccines have the capacity to prevent severe diseases that may even result to death. The benefits of receiving a vaccination are far more than the disadvantages, and, therefore, all people should receive vaccination from particular diseases.

Even though, a vaccine is designed in order to protect people from particular diseases, they are prone to causing side effects. According to Wolk, “A possible side effect that may result from a vaccine is referred to as an adverse event” (56). Most of the side effects resulting from vaccination are mild and include soreness, or redness of the injected point. Other vaccines are related with fever, achiness, as well as rashes. Each year, children aged one year and below in the U.S. receive at least 10 million vaccinations. In the first year of a baby’s life, a substantial number of babies are prone to serious, as well as life-threatening infections, in addition to medical events (Pitcairn 56). Moreover, it is within the first year that inherited illnesses might become evident.

Ingredients of Vaccines: different vaccines have different ingredients that make them up. The elements that are found in the vaccine are responsible for boosting the immunity of the body against particular infections. For instance, the flu vaccine protects the body from viruses that have been enclosed in the shot. Flucelvax, a type of flu vaccine is made up of the following ingredients: Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cell protein (inactive cells from a dog’s kidney), Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cell DNA (inactive dog’s DNA), Polylobate 80, Beta-Propiolactone, a phosphate buffer, as well as Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (Pitcairn 134).It is particularly important for a person intending to obtain a flu shot to comprehend the ingredients that are in the flu vaccine so as to be aware of what exactly is being introduced into the body. This is significant during the determination of allergic reactions that may occur.

Medical exemption: There are exemptions that are provided in U.S. States for people with medical risks related with vaccines. In case particular contraindications show a probable harm from a specific vaccine; an exemption is permitted. However, since such instances are rare, as well as exemptions are relatively simple to implement, there is minimal risk of compromising the efficiency of the entire vaccination program through granting of the exemptions.

Life-saving vaccinations ought to be provided by the government freely to all the citizens. This is because there are socio-economic factors that may make vaccines affordable to some people, and unaffordable to others (Beverley et al. 112). For instance, if there was a vaccine against diseases such as Ebola, these vaccines ought to be provided for free so as to cut down the infection rate, as well as the mortality rates.

In conclusion, vaccination is indeed one of the major accomplishments that have ever occurred in the medical field. The benefits of vaccination to human beings are many and that they outweigh the controversies regarding it negativity. In order to lessen the costs of hospital and medication bills, vaccination provides a solution that prevents the invasion of the disease before it is too late. The government should; as a result makes sure that all people receive vaccination against infections that are life-threatening or highly contagious. It should also continue funding different research institutions in the medical field so as to facilitate the efficiency of disease eradications.