Sociology Theory (Ritzer, George. 1996) | MyPaperHub

The analytical concept, a theory is an approach that mainly employs the use of analysis to break a problem down into elements that are necessary for the problem to be solved. This approach looks much deeper into the problem, find its root causes, and then find out how to resolve the underlying causes (Harvey 9). According to the lecturer, the ideas that represent a set of things grouped together this grouping done in a precise way that depicts the bundled concept from the others defines the analytical concept.

Theories are a reasonable system of statements derived from each other. They can have the theory part as well as the history part of it. The lecture notes, are tools showing the components of methods in social sciences and how they are relevant to the theories (Ritzer 279). In the chart, the approach describes those ideas that represent set of things grouped together and can be used to make predictions. Theories deduce concept from ideas, and it accepts that science studying human actions is distinct from generalizing natural sciences. The theory can be understood theoretically or historically.

Historical progression of Marxism is the subsequent work from the Marxian perception of different theorists. It also deals with the work that reflects the history. It shows the progress made by the Marxian with the research from the neo-Marxist to post-Marxist. Some scholars fit in that they study in the modern world system. Unlike the Marxian thinkers, the economic entity with a division of labor that is neither politically nor cultural boundaries related is Wallerstein's work (Ritzer 312). Wallerstein found that unit in his concept of the world system which mostly contained social systems with a set of edges and definable lifespan that does not last for the whole life. Neo-Marxian focuses on the Marxian theory that returned to deal with the realm, the work of these Marxian theories did not repeat the methods earlier done but instead it involved the efforts to adapt to Marxian theory to the reality of the capitalized modern society (Mjoset 1). Most of the neo-Marxian included the field of economic, but a part of them were also influencing the society in the area of sociology. In Neo-Marxian Theory only two issues are broadly focused. These problems include capital and labor. Economically oriented Marxist was concerned with the question of Fordism and post-Fordism (Folbre 317). Fordism is the ideas, principles or systems generated by Henry Ford which credited with the development of modern mass production system. Post-Fordism is when the signs of Fordism have disappeared and never identified. Post- Marxist theories are theories that involve the synthesis of Marxian theory with other theories, ideas, and methods. They include two factors that are external to the approach that includes changes in the social world and the internal to the theory itself. The neo-Marxist and Post-Marxist Theory and relevant in historical progression in that both show the transition of the research done by various approaches. These methods demonstrate the difference in the study earlier done by the theories and how the different approaches employed after the research findings.(Ritzer 324).

Some of the developments made in the Marxian theory is the work of postmodern Marxism is Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe’s Hegemony and Socialist Strategy. Ellen Wood accepted the work on linguistics, texts and discourse in postmodernism, detaches ideology from its material base and ultimately dissolves the social altogether into ideology. The other development made was the concept of hegemony which was of central importance to Laclau and Mouffe was developed by Gramsci to focus on cultural leadership rather than on the coercive effect of state domination.

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