Principles and Practices of Management | My Paper Hub
Planning is the act of looking ahead
and finding ...
Planning is the act of looking ahead
and finding out the courses of action to be followed in future. It determines
when, how and how will do a particular task. It
is associated with some ideas such as preparation or examining the
future which means planning is all about the forecast of course of action for
the future which requires a construction of the operating procedures of the
programs. According to Henri, Fayol planning should be flexible, current,
relevant and accurate because it brings together the organization by
concentrating on the nature, objectives, and requirements of the business both
short and long-term predictions of the industry.
For a manager to plan effectively, they
should have skills in handling people, have significant energy and a high
capacity of moral courage, have perpetual incumbency. They should be competent
with specialized requirements of the central business, possess general
experience in the enterprise and should be able to generate creative and
innovative ideas. Poor planning and decision making can negatively affect the
body. Situations can also fail, and the best plan becomes useless. Therefore,
managers should be very keen while making decisions and implementing the
Planning is a primary tool in the
organizational process because it assists employees to focus on the set
objectives and the goals of the organization. Without a plan people can lose
focus but when provided and it is clearly stated it assist the staff to
concentrate on achieving the set goals and objectives of the business. These
assist the organization in meeting their needs and remain competitive.
Organization will be able to take proactive measures and be innovative and
creative. Planning is all about forecasting thus organization will be able to
curb for uncertainty and the risks which cannot be predicted avoided. It gives
the organization an active and meaningful guide to the activities being
undertaken by the employees for accomplishing the business strategy. It is because with planning there is clear role
definition that will assist reducing conflicting responsibilities. It also
matches all the managerial activities thus relating the external changes with
internal processes. All these forms a base for meaningful decision making thus
provides the best alternative to the future course of action.
Planning is a continuous process that is very complex, and
managers are required to plan effectively by first understanding the
environment that is continuously changing. For managers to plan effectively strategies on
innovation, research and development costs are vital. It helps the organization come up with new products which makes it to stay relevant in the
market and thus they will succeed. Strategic planning will help the organization
to remain in the right direction. Research and development evaluation is
critical because it assists the company to minimize risks and uncertainty. For effective planning research, development
and innovation cost is necessary to support innovative initiatives being run in
the organization. They should analyze and come up with strategies which involve
many steps. It reduces the gap between the current position and the future
state of an organization and thus making things possible.
Managers can plan effectively by
following these steps; Identifying
objectives: managers need to set goals and objectives for the whole group
and the various functional units of the organization. Objectives must specify
the activities to be done, as well as the expected outcomes. Focus should be on
the outcome to be expected, and objectives determine both long-term and
short-term goals that must be achieved.
the premises for planning: premises as assumptions about the environment
where the program will be implemented. The environment is dynamic, and it’s
continuously changing thus calling for planning the facilities. It involves
both internal and external environments. Internal factors are controllable and
may include the policy of capital investment, management and labor relations
and theories of management. External factors are non-controllable and may
include political, social, cultural and economic factors.
setting the objectives, various options should be identified. This is to assist
in choosing the best alternative which is not always apparent. The planner is supposed to select the best
suitable alternative which is a hard task. Forth is, evaluating the alternatives: each alternative should be analyzed to
determine how it will best contribute to meeting the organizational goals and
objectives. Their weakness and strengths should be compared. Selecting
the best alternative: After evaluating the different options the best is
selected, the manager is responsible for deciding which option to choose. They
are supposed to choose more than one because the planning premise may not
exactly suit the current situation of the firm, they should also ready always
with the option the best suits a different situation.
The next step is, establishing a detailed plan. These plans are the one that will
assist in achieving its desired outcome because they contain all the activities
to be carried out in the various functional units of the firm. They include policies, budget, rules and
regulations, standard operating procedures and programs. Lastly, appraisal plan is developed that is used
to make follow up. When the plan is implemented, it should be appraised to
determine its effectiveness. In the case of any mistakes, corrective measures
are taken so as to avoid deviating from the course of action.
In conclusion, for managers to plan
effectively they consider the different situations because the organization is
influenced by dynamic environment. It is characterized by uncertainty and
manager should have contingency plans to assist in such situations.
Contingencies are unavoidable, but the level of damage can be reduced if
designed effectively before time. It calls for creativity and innovation
ASSESSING EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT: FIVE PORTER’S FORCES.
Dynamic environment is the one that is continuously
changing and impacts due to varies influences. For managers to effectively
formulate strategies they must do environmental scanning. It will help them to
understand the realities in the business environment. Analysis of external
environment helps to identify the potential threats and opportunities outside
the organization threats hidden in the environment and assist in learning about
the events and trends in the environment and predict the future position for those
factors of the environment. External environment consists of factors that are
outside the enterprise and they not within the control of the management at a
The five porter’s forces is one of the techniques
used in assessing the external environment that affects the business whether
new or existing. Michael E. Porter says, five factors help to determine whether
a company is making profits or not based on other competitors in the market.
These forces are;
Competitive rivalry: it examines the competition that is
existing currently in the industry and is determined by the total number of
competitors that exist in the market and what they are capable of doing. The
rivalry of completion is high when there are few businesses in the same market
but in a growing industry, customers can go to the competitor’s products and
services that have low prices. When there is high rivalry competition,
advertising and price competition occurs, but it cannot affect the business
power of suppliers:
this analyzes how much power and control do the supplier has with the potential
of raising prices. This lowers the profitability of the business. It also
determines the number of existing suppliers, when they are few they have more
power. The sources of energy include switching cost of firms, availability of
substitute and cost of supply about the substitutes. Bargaining power of the customers: the forces examine the power of
the consumers to affect the prices of products and their quality.
threat of new entrants:
this analyzes the chances of a new competitor of joining the industry. When
barrier of entry is less, it makes it easy for a new competitor to enter the
market its increases the risk of share market depletion of business. Barriers
to entry and exit are frequently applied, and they include ultimate cost
advantage, access to inputs, economies of scale and brand recognition. The threat of substitutes: this
determines how easy it is for consumers to change from a business product or
service to that of the competitor. It compares the number of existing
competitors, their prices, the profits, and quality to that of the business being
examined. They are informed by switching costs and buyer biases to change, and
this determines their ability to lower the prices.
This is a superiority possessed by an
organization when it can provide the same values products or services as the
competitor but at a lower price or high prices because they offer high quality
through product differentiation. There are three types are; Cost competitive advantages: this is
when an organization can utilize its skilled personnel, cheap raw materials,
controlled costs, and efficient operations to offer real value to the consumer.
Companies can use this to achieve their success by providing large selection
and low to the retailer’s strengths and size. They can cut their prizes in the
following ways product which involves continually improving the product as
there is field advancement design, re-engineering that is redesigning and
improving the product and creating new delivery methods for goods and services
for a company to attain competitive advantage their goods or services should be
valuable and unique. It will help them win customer loyalty, and product
differentiation will be achieved. Cost
advantages that easily vanish when there are new competitors in the industry.
If the company’s services/products are unique, it is difficult to maintain an
edge based on prices only in the market. Theses are achieved by having
respected brand names this will bring product reliability. The company is
supposed to be creative and innovative so as to meet customer needs and to
adapt to changes in technology with time and this will make them attain
Niches/focus: in this case, the business aims at
differentiating a particular target of the market sections. Business can offer customer needs of the
small section that are different from those offered by the competitor who
offers to a larger part of the consumers. Such companies produce customized
products for the small part of the market. They become successful when the
quantities are required small or when the extent of differentiation required is
beyond capabilities of the industry. It tries to meet the varying customers’
needs and wants thus satisfying them.
DIAGRAM OF FLAT ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE
This is how the group is organized, and
it gives members explicit directions on how to go ahead, bring and unifies them
together, and it’s usually inevitable. To change the structure of the
organization, current ways of doing things needs to be examined, discuss the
structural change with stakeholders and learn and explore the organizational
structure for bringing change. For Natural life Sdn Bhd Company a flat
structure is suitable for the organization.
Advantages of the flat structure
include; staff are involved and allowed to take on more responsibility,
communication is high and significant and increased teamwork and unity. There is also less bureaucracy and
comfortable decision making as well as low cost of maintenance. Disadvantages
of this structure are that it is only limited to small organizations, decisions
can get stuck as a result of consulting with many staff members, and it is very
expensive to implement.
Authoritarian leadership: the primary emphasis is on distinguishing between
the leader and the employees. It is being used by Mr. Ganeson the CEO of
Agri-Malaysia agricultural company. Laissez-faire leadership: all the rights
and power to make the decision is given to the employer and this is being used
by En.nordin raze, the software company. Paternalistic leadership: the leader
acts as father and shows concern for its employees. It is being used by Mr. Lee
chairman of the Office manufacturer of inkjet.
Pros of authoritarian leadership are
that it allows quick decision-making and provides motivation and satisfaction
to leaders who dictates the employees. It also yields better profits when high
speed is required. Cons of authoritarian leadership are, frustration,
demoralization, and conflict among employees and staff tend to goldbrick
responsibilities and initiatives. Pros of laisser-faire leadership are that it
gives job satisfaction and encouragement to employees.Employees are given a
chance to take action and development of workers in all the areas. Cons
include; no leadership at all, no one
provides guidance and support to staff, and chances of problems and conflicts
are high especially when employs move in different directions.
Pros of paternalistic leadership are;
Providing feedback that is used to generate morale decreased absenteeism of
employees.Employees interest are considered when they are given the chance to
make decisions and are rewarded when well behaved.Cons are; when there is no
constant connection to management employees becomes less motivated, if wrong decisions
are made staff will not be satisfied, increased supervision of workers is
required due to overdependence and times the leader might spank the staff
leading due problems due to employee rights and legislation.
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