In what ways might sex-trafficking and other forms of domestic slavery be addressed in poorer as well as rich nations among Europe, South America or Asia.
Although slavery has been outlawed in the world for over 150 years, there are thousands of persons that are still held as slaves in Europe and are treated as objects. They are humiliated and abused and just like the old age slaves, the modern slaves that are predominantly domestic slaves are forced to work through the use of mental and or physical threats (Pearson, 2002). They are overworked with no or little rewards and in most cases are constrained or face restrictions on their freedom of movement and are treated in degrading and inhumane manner. In Europe, the modern domestic slaves are predominantly female and usually work in private households. They majorly start as migrant domestic workers, and that fast changes to even sex slavery as the sex trafficking business is also a boom in the contemporary society. The women who innocently go to Europe voluntarily as they seek to improve themselves while others are escaping poverty and hardship in their mother countries. However, there are a rising number of others that are lured by the promise of employments majorly by the agencies and other intermediaries being left debt bounded and even trafficked (Shelley, 2010). Sex trafficking has further been the fastest growing criminal enterprise in the global economy and the increased organized crime not just in Europe but also in other continents calls for collective initiative and commitment to combat the slavery. Therefore, sex trafficking and the other forms of domestic slavery can only be addressed in Europe and beyond through the collective engagement of the international community to combat the organized crime.
The economic hardship and the promises of prosperity that the criminals employed leaving many women in the region vulnerable to trafficking within their countries to sections in Europe and other parts of the world. Sex trafficking and other forms of domestic slavery have become an important issue of concern all over the world but more so in Europe in the Balkan part of southern Europe since the fall of the communist era in the region (Shelley, 2010). In 1997, there were over 175,000 young women from Russia and Eastern Europe sold as commodities in the sex markets of the developed countries in Europe and the Americas. The United Nations reports that 0pver 4 million people every year are traded against their will to serve in servitude around the world. It is, therefore, imperative that the nations in Europe, in general, come up with methods of providing employment and also coming up with programs to warn and curb the luring of girls to the trade. Having developing or growing economies that provide and offer more opportunities to the individuals will ensure that there is a reduction in the vulnerability of the girls in the regions thus being a major way to curb the sex trafficking trade that makes domestic slavery a reality in the continent (Shelley, 2010).
The European Union, respective countries, and the international community should actively participate in trying to avoid the militarization of nations and regions since it is a major factor that contributes to the domestic slavery and sex trafficking (Pearson, 2002). Areas such as the Balkans have faced war and militarization that resulted in the increased presence of foreign men in the Balkans after the war in Yugoslavia. It is this that led to the smuggling of thousands of women and girls for commercial sex exploitation since war polarizes a region and also makes the structures in place to support and protect the citizens from such atrocities difficult. There is a real connection between military bases and sex trafficking and soldiers have played a significant role to drive the demand for brothels around Europe. It is this that makes it imperative that respective countries as well as the EU to find mechanisms to avert the possibility of wars and militarization of regions leaving room for other modes of conflict resolution. They should also actively engage in protecting the girls and women in case there is war in a region against the advancement of such a trade (Sage & Kasten, 2008).
It is also important that nations and the EU in general institute mechanism to control the sectors that encourage trafficking especially those that are labor-intensive. It is the demand for labor in some of the sectors that result to shrewd business people deciding to traffic people for cheap or even servitude in their farms or industries (Shelley, 2010). Such industries include the textile, fishery, construction, agriculture, and manufacturing. The movement of immigrants and other internationals to work in such industries is what has left the loophole for human trafficking and also left the option of servitude, domestic slavery as well as the sex trade as an added business to the majority of the shrewd business people. It is, therefore, a key that there be some controls and regulations on the importation and globalization of labor in such industries. The EU should institute some mechanisms that protect such laborers from ant form of exploitation and servitude (Shelley, 2010).
There is also the need for the Council of Europe to have a zero tolerance for slavery and trafficking of any form through the development of systems, laws, and mechanisms to eradicate the evil. As an international organization that is very vocal in defending the fundamental human rights, the Council should take the responsibility to stand in the forefront of the fights against any and all forms of slavery and trafficking of people despite the background that they came from. The council should also take the side of the victims to ensure that any perpetrator of domestic slavery is brought to justice so as to discourage the crime in Europe (Bales, 2007).
The EU should also work in close collaboration with the member states to criminalize and adopt stiff laws that prohibit the domestic slavery as well as sex trade (Pearson, 2002). EU should be on the forefront at encouraging and also offering support to the member states to combat domestic slavery in all its forms as a matter of urgency. It can be done by ensuring that every country in Europe actively participates and also criminalizes any slavery. If the trade is criminalized in all the countries and also offers justice mechanisms that are strict and thorough against all the perpetrators, it will make it difficult for the continued existence of the criminals within their borders and also to the other countries. There is also the need for the European Union to work in close liaison with the other international bodies to ensure an intercontinental and global agreement on the criminalization of the trade since if there are no available persons to traffic, then the business would lose its strength (Bales, 2007). If there is cooperation between African states and the European countries to combat the trade within their borders, then it would be difficult for the perpetrators to operate. Therefore, it calls for Europe to be at the forefront at championing against the agencies and the bodies existent on African, Asian and even North American states making it possible for the recruitment and shipping of such girls and women later subjected to the inhumane atrocities.
The European Union and the countries should be at the forefront at reviewing the immigration and deportation policies and also granting the domestic slavery victims some form of support to recollect their lives (Bales, 2007). Moreover, there are some girls and women that are trafficked into Europe as they are promised the work permits and citizenships due to the difficulty of the legal mechanisms to attain the documents. There are others that also end up being lured into sex trafficking as they are de[ported by the legal systems when found as illegal immigrants and as a result, the poor way of handling deportation is what has resulted in leaving the opening for luring of individuals into the sex trade. the immigration laws have also made it difficult for the individuals that are sold into slavery or even sex trade once they have immigrated into the European countries to make any form of complaint since they usually have no rights as aliens (Bridget,1993). Some of the girls and women also prefer remaining as domestic slaves in the safety and comfort of the European countries other than reporting such cases and end up being deported back to the countries that they ran from hardships such a war, disease, and terror. It is this that encourages and even makes the slave masters treat the girls and women with further impunity since they are aware that such individuals are not legally in the country and therefore suppress them with the threats of reporting them and arranging their deportation (Bridget,1993). The global community and the European Union should therefore; institute better immigration and deportation laws that have a place for humane treatment of the victims and also offer a lifeline of support and protection of their human rights. There is also the need for the international cooperation in the endeavor so that those deported back to their countries are assured of their safety even on returning home (Bridget,1993).
The majority of the women and girls that are trafficked or even lured into the sex trade and domestic servitude are usually running away from poverty, disease and at times famine in their mother countries. It is more so the case in Asia and Africa and some countries in East Europe where the populace live below the poverty line (Sage & Kasten, 2008). As a result, such individuals are more gullible to the promise and luring that comes with the human traffickers in the promise of a better life. As a result, such trafficked individuals are the ones that flood Europe and lead to the furthering of the Sex trafficking and domestic slavery in the continent. As a result, European countries cannot address the matter in their background without collaborating with the countries and regions n that such immigrants come from to address the pressing issues and root causes of the problem. Trying to combat the crime in Europe without solving the problems facing the developing countries is unsustainable approach since the availability of women and girls easily lured is what makes the business thrive in the continent (Sage & Kasten, 2008). European countries and the EU should, therefore, actively engage in poverty eradication and support of such nations and regions that the sex slaves come from to ensure that there are sufficient opportunities available in such areas and therefore, discourage the immigration in search of a better life. It can do so through offering aid and even grants to address uprising issues and also support the government in building the necessary structures and infrastructure to build their economies so as to help their citizens.
To sufficiently address the sex trafficking menace countries should ensure that the health care providers and organizations involved with trafficked persons increase their capacity to identify and refer individuals in trafficking situations. They should also be capacitated to provide sensitive and safe services to the individuals in post-trafficking interventions (Surtees, 2008). They could ensure that such victims receive sufficient caring, guidance from the health providers. The governments should also mandate acute and long-term provision of healthcare to the trafficked persons. The achievement of such a move can only be done through granting of such individuals their immediate rights to state-supported health services regardless of their ability tom pay or willingness to engage in criminal action against the traffickers. They should also commit the necessary financial and human resources to make it possible.
The United national protocol to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in persons assets that the health at the international stage has a significant role to play in the prevention of trafficking, care, and referral of victims of trafficking which is fundamental at fighting the sex trade and domestic slavery. The sexual health outreach workers and other practitioners that assist the migrant populations are in a good position to address trafficking of persons and therefore, eradicate domestic slavery (United Nations General Assembly, 2000). They may have the opportunities to alert individuals to the risk of human trafficking and sex trade and also to identify and refer people who may be in exploitative circumstances. They may further provide care as part of a post-trafficking referral system in Europe and other regions of the world.
The policy makers and other decision makers in Europe and the world as a whole have the responsibility of instituting some regulatory steps to increase the level of awareness of the risks posed by human and sex trafficking in particular among individuals intending to migrate (Surtees, 2008). The migrant workers in various destinations should have the same protection and legal redress mechanisms as those of the domestic workforce. It can only be made possible through the collaborative efforts between the states internationally and not just in Europe. There are some recent developments such as the 2011 adoption of the Convention on Domestic Workers that includes the extraordinary measures to protect vulnerable members of the employment groups (Surtees, 2008). There should also be provision of guides from all countries to the companies on responsible recruitment and employment of migrant workers and the countries that majorly have the migrant workers should educate and inform their own citizens on the dangers a well as the right channels to migrate in search of labor and other benefits in other countries.
The researchers and funders in Europe and across the globe also have mandate to addressing the sex trafficking and domestic slavery menace in the world. At present there is limited empirical research on human trafficking (United Nations General Assembly, 2000). Particularly, there is the lack of studies on larger even more potentially representative sample of trafficked people as well as longer-term studies aimed at providing better understanding of post-trafficking health changes. The empirical data on the trafficking of men, their health needs and service access is also especially scarce. Moreover, there is need for more data on trafficking across the full range of labor sectors that are involved. There is the need for rigorous evaluation studies of the major policies and programs to identify the most efficient counter-0traffickingf strategies and the most appropriate care for the affected people (United Nations General Assembly, 2000).
In conclusion, sex trafficking, and domestic slavery were banned centuries ago. However, due to the lack of proper structures and support to the eradication of the menace, the trade is one the rise in the recent past not only in Europe but also in other parts of the world. The growth in the trade may be attributed to the high immigration rates, poverty, lack of sound policies to address the issue, war and the rise of organized crime in the sector. Therefore, it is a problem that is no longer unique to Europe or any region and hence cannot be addressed by Europe on its own but has to be a culmination of efforts to combat the menace. The domestic slavery and sex trafficking is now an international menace that can only be addressed by the world coming together to put an end to it through policy change, provision of support and putting in place mechanisms to deal with the issue not only within the local borders but also across the divide. The developed countries in Europe should also be ready to support the less fortunate countries in addressing the local issues so as to discourage the high immigration rates in search of a better life that ultimately culminates to the encouragement of the sex trade and domestic slavery. Therefore, sex trafficking and the other forms of domestic slavery can only be addressed in Europe and beyond through the collective commitment of the international community to combat the organized crime.