Chapter 2 – Literature review
The main purpose of this chapter is to conduct a literature review with regards to the study shaping up the research as well as investigating the nature of relationship that exists between self efficacy and emotional intelligence. There have been numerous studies conducted on self efficacy, emotional intelligence, and the connection that exists between self efficacy and emotional intelligence. These studies have been important in the overall study of emotional intelligence and self efficacy in varied ways. The impact of one study on the topic is completely different from another. The literature review will be conducted so as to analyze the different studies and how they have shaped up the course of this study. The literature review will be divided into three major sections. These sections are self efficacy, emotional intelligence, and the social learning theory. In the literature review, emotional intelligence is handled as the independent variable while self efficacy represents the dependent variable. The connecting theory between the dependent variable and the independent variable is social learning theory. The social learning theory has been employed as the theoretical framework through which the dependent and independent variable are connected (Taylor, 2003).
The study is focused on extensively analyzing the relationship that exists between self efficacy (independent variable) and emotional intelligence (dependent variable). The three sections within the literature review will be divided into five subsections. These subsections are designed to provide more information about the main elements within the study. The subsections will include definitions of the two variables, the research approaches of the two variables, causes of the two variables, the various indicators of the two variables, and significant findings with regards to the variables (Matthews & Roberts, 2004).
Throughout the course of the study, the researcher will be looking to establish the relationship that exists between self efficacy and emotional intelligence as well as bringing out the role played by each of these variables in the social learning theory. The social learning theory is concerned with the processes through which people learn. According to the social learning theory, people are presumed to have the ability to effectively learn within the confines of a social context. The theory also claims that observational learning and modeling are the main tools through which learning within the social context takes place (Emmerling, 2008).
Background information on emotional intelligence
The main aim of this section is to provide information with regards to the definition of emotional intelligence and its importance. There have been numerous studies that have been conducted with regards to emotional intelligence. These studies have either analyzed emotional intelligence as the main focus within the broader study scope or studied emotional intelligence in part. In both cases, important information about emotional intelligence has been provided. In each of the studies, information about emotional intelligence represents a construct through which the broader study of emotional intelligence is established. One of the main aims of this study is to conduct extensive analyses on the various constructs and how they impact the overall study (Matthews & Roberts, 2004).
In most cases, emotional intelligence is analyzed with regards to the role it plays in excellence. Emotional intelligence is usually studied alongside intelligence quotient. In most studies, researchers have established a major relationship with regards to intelligence quotient and emotional intelligence. Intelligence quotient has been presented as being synergistic with emotional intelligence. Analysis of emotional intelligence is important in different areas of life. One of the areas that have benefitted most from the study of emotional intelligence is the professional arena. Emotional intelligence has played an important role in explaining various elements within the job setting. Performance within the professional arena is analyzed and defined through the different studies that have been conducted with regards to emotional intelligence. The social learning theory has an extensive relationship with regards to emotional intelligence (Bandura, 1997).
Definition of emotional intelligence
There are varied definitions that exist with regards to emotional intelligence. In the various studies conducted on emotional intelligence, it is evident to note that the definition provided in one study is different from the other. Whether emotional intelligence is the main focus of a study or a section of analysis within the greater study, there are common elements of definition that shape up the assessment of emotional intelligence. Although there are different definitions that exist with regards to emotional intelligence, there are common elements of definition that can be found in each of these definitions. Emotional intelligence is defined as the ability through which an individual is not only able to identify and assess their own emotions and those of other people, but also control the –identified and assessed – emotions. Here, it is important to take note of the nature of ability in the definition. The definition brings together the ability of an individual to identify, assess, and control their personal and corporate emotions (Matthews & Roberts, 2004).
Emotional intelligence is assessed through two major divisions. It is analyzed as both as an ability and as a trait. Emotional intelligence as an ability is measured through the use of maximum performance tests. It is also important to note that traditional intelligence is extensively related to emotional intelligence through the emotional intelligence ability. Emotional intelligence is also analyzed as a trait. Here, the measurement is done through employing self-report questionnaires. As a trait, emotional intelligence is mostly connected to personality and personality traits (Akers & Jensen, 2007)
History and overview of emotional intelligence
The history of emotional intelligence can be traced back to the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The history of emotional intelligence and its development can be traced back to Charles Darwin. In his extensive analysis of emotional expression, Charles dealt with the importance of emotional expression in different capacities. From his studies, he was majorly concerned with the importance of emotional expression as presented in adaptation and survival. According to Darwin, emotional expression plays an important role in the establishment– and development – of survival tactics and adaptation skills. Throughout the inception period, most of the researchers were focused on the cognitive aspects of intelligence. Intelligence was not only defined through the cognitive aspects scope, but also researched and developed on the same scope. Definitions of intelligence through the cognitive aspects scope majorly dealt with problem solving and memory capability. Over the course of time, researchers expanded their scope to include the non-cognitive elements of intelligence. As intelligence grew in popularity as a research topic, the need to go beyond the cognitive aspects began to rise. Non-cognitive aspects of intelligence underwent an evolution to become the main elements with regards to the numerous studies that were being conducted on intelligence. This is evident in some of the works of E.L. Thorndike. In as early as 1920, the researcher was extensively studying what he referred to as social intelligence. Here, he was trying to present background information with regards to the skills that shape up the processes of understanding and effectively managing other people. In 1940, studies conducted by David Wechsler brought out the influence non-intellective factors had on intelligent behavior. The study also presented important information with regards to the various models of intelligence and how these were influenced by the various non-intellective factors. In the study, intelligent behavior was analyzed with regards to the models of intelligence as well as the role played by non-intellective factors in the completion and effective functioning of these models. The establishment and development of multiple intelligences as an idea within the larger emotional intelligence study was also one of the greatest developments with regards to emotional intelligence. Here, multiple intelligences were presented as the sum of interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence. Howard Gardner is credited with the major developments that took place with regards to multiple intelligences. His studies were founded on the need to address the ineffectiveness of IQ in trying to expound cognitive ability. Although IQ can explain cognitive abilities in part, there are elements within the greater study that need detailed explanations (Matthews & Roberts, 2004).
The doctoral thesis is considered to be the first elaborate study with regards to emotional intelligence. The researcher behind this study was known as Wayne Payne and his thesis has helped map the term in its right context. In the thesis presented by Wayne Payne, multiple intelligences were defined and analyzed extensively. Although the term had been previously employed in studies by Leuner, Daniel Goleman, and Stanley Greenspan, Wayne Payne dealt with the term more extensively. In 2000, there was an extensive analysis conducted so as to distinguish between the two major divisions of emotional intelligence. From the history of emotional intelligence, it is evident to note that the major developments have been centered on the development of multiple intelligences. Since the inception of multiple intelligences, there have been major developments that have expounded emotional intelligence. The two main divisions of intelligences – interpersonal intelligence and intrapersonal intelligence – are the foundation on which major studies with regards to emotional intelligence takes place (Akers & Jensen, 2007)
Research approaches of emotional intelligence
Through the literature review, it is evident to note that emotional intelligence was birthed out of multiple intelligences. The need to answer the co-relation questions that existed between intelligence quotient and cognitive abilities gave rise to the extensive study concerning emotional intelligence. The study on emotional intelligence is under constant evolution. There are different elements that are in constant analysis alongside emotional intelligence. Whereas the ancient studies were concerned with multiple intelligences and the various distinctions that existed therein, there modern studies are more focused on the different control, identification, and assessment processes. In modern studies, researchers are concerned with emotional intelligence both on the individual and group setting. Whereas the ancient researchers were focused on the individual, modern research on emotional intelligence is focused on the individual as well as the corporate setting (Bandura, 1997).
Background information on self efficacy
There are different definitions that exist with regards to self efficacy. The definition provided in one study is bound to be completely different from the definition provided in another study. Unlike emotional intelligence, self efficacy presents itself as a measure. Self efficacy is defined as the measure of an individual’s ability to not only design goals, but also attain success in the different set goals. Self-efficacy is one of the main areas of study in the broader psychology discipline. There are different perspectives through which self efficacy is analyzed in the course of research. Some of the major areas of research with regards to self-efficacy include the relationship between self-concept and self efficacy, and development of self-efficacy, habits of attribution that improve self efficacy (Emmerling, 2008).
Social learning theory
The social learning theory is one of the major connections that exist with regards to self-efficacy and emotional intelligence. Through the platform presented by the social learning theory, analysis of emotional intelligence and self efficacy takes place effectively thus bringing out the relationship that exists between these two elements of study. The social learning theory claims that people are able to learn within the confines of a social context. The social learning theory bases its major claims on concepts such as observational learning and modeling. One of the areas where social learning theory is most studied is with regards to early childhood education processes. The manner in which children learn from the environment presents the social learning theory study with rich grounds for analysis. Self efficacy and emotional intelligence are also important factors in analysis in the course of studying early childhood education processes. Early childhood education is also important as it presents the learning processes that exhibit the place of environment in learning. Here, the environment is analyzed with regards to the manner in which it teachers children in the course of early childhood education (Bandura, 1997).
Learning through influential models is also an important element in the overall analysis. Here, the processes that are involved in learning through influential models provide grounds for both self efficacy and emotional intelligence analysis. According to the social learning theory, all the behaviors learned by a person are learnt primarily through observation and imitation. Within the societal setting, most of the learning takes place as a result of observation. Imitation is also important in learning social behavior. According to the social learning theory, learning is enhanced through offering punishment and rewards for the various actions shaping up the process of learning. Self efficacy and emotional intelligence are related to this element of learning in different capacities. Through this learning system, it is possible to establish the relationship that exists between self efficacy and emotional intelligence (Bandura, 1995).
The locus of control is also a important area of analysis with regards to the relationship that exists between emotional intelligence and self-efficacy. Locus of control is one of the major areas in personality psychology. In the social learning theory, locus of control is one of the major applications. It is defined as the extent to which a person believes that they are able to control the various events and activities that affect them. This concept was developed by one of the psychologists of the 20th century named Julian B. Rotter. In her studies, there are a lot of issues that deal with self efficacy and emotional intelligence (Akers & Jensen, 2007)
Akers, R. L., & Jensen, G. F. (2007). Social learning theory and the explanation of crime: a
guide for the new century. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction.
Bandura, A. (1995). Self-efficacy in changing societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman.
Emmerling, R. J. (2008). Emotional intelligence theoretical and cultural perspectives.
New York: Nova Science Publishers.
Matthews, G., Zeidner, M., & Roberts, R. D. (2004). Emotional intelligence: science and myth.
Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Taylor, G. R. (2003). Practical application of social learning theories in educating young
African-American males. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
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