Research question 1
For the UK to ensure that all the services that it undertakes in regard to aviation, there are quite a number of things that have to be put into consideration. This is especially basing on the fact that there are multiple implications that come with the exit of Britain. With the changing relations of the UK and the other states in Europe come implications in regard to how aviation activities are planned out. There will obviously be changes and they will have to be implemented in the straightest forward and justifiable way to ensure flexibility and easy transition.
One of the many ways the UK can ensure stability is by making the airlines public. This will mean that the general public can purchase shares in the airline and this will ensure that the airlines will have a large array of resources at their disposal. This is usually based on the willingness of the public to invest on the same and the amount of finances that the public disposes at the hands of the airline to make use of. This is one sure way that the airline companies will be able to recover from the economic slump that the exit by the UK is about to cause. The fact that the funds are payable in phases and cannot be reclaimed at the same means that the airlines will be safe to operate using the floating capital without the fear of resources falling short or that the resources may come to depletion.
The frequency of the flights is also supposed to be increased basing on the fact that there will be many migrations with the UK countries and Britain. This mainly has to do with the foreigners who will be going back to their homes and those who will be commuting on a regular basis mainly because of work related issues. The capacity is also supposed to be increased so as to ensure there is maximum operations taking place and also to ensure there is air traffic that can be controlled and regulated. This will be beneficial to the airlines as the logistics that have to do with the arrangement and scheduling of flights and flight patterns will be greatly eased and made much smoother.
The domestic market is also supposed to be deregulated in the sense that the government will have less control over the airlines market and it will be left to mainly deal with the market forces. This will thus allow for competition and grow of the industry in a manner that is positive as it will be largely controlled by the private sector. The private sector is usually the best force that shapes the market mainly because the prices and costs are based on the prevailing conditions rather than government favoritism and influences. Furthermore the local industry will be a proper position that will enable to gain enough tenacity that will allow it to compete with some of the leading airlines and it has been able to experience the market conditions without necessarily getting any help from the government in regard to the same.
The country has been considering taking up foreign ownership of all its airlines which poses a number of benefits and challenges at the same time. One of the major advantages is the fact that the foreign owners may be in a position to handle the aviation needs of the country better than the local airlines. This mainly has to do with the resources that they have and the systems and experience that they have in the industry. There is also the advantage that they may be able to nurture the local industry in the sense that they may decide to establish a local airline using the same principles that they used when setting up their own airlines and therefore increasing the chances of success.
Another key benefit is the fact that passenger comfort and satisfaction will be greatly increased when they are dealing with experienced and reputable airlines. This will in the long term result to more passengers using the airlines and the airlines will be able to shift into a profit making venture. This profit making curve will not be beneficial to only them but also the government as it will get added revenue mainly because of the fact that taxation increases with the amount of profit that is made.
The major disadvantage that comes with this arrangement is the fact the local airlines may be locked of the profit making venture. This mainly because of the fact that the local may still be young and not in a position to compete with well-established and reputable airlines that have been operational for long. And furthermore rather than the government shielding them, it simply allows the entry of stiff competition which stifles their efforts and reduces their profit margins significantly or even runs them out of business.
There is also the assumption that the chances of the airlines taking up local staff may be greatly limited. They might instead favor having majority of their staff from their mother country. Therefore the introduction of foreign airlines may result to the local population greatly missing out on jobs as the employer favors citizens from the mother country. Even despite the labor laws in place, the foreign may just be willing to meet the minimum requirements of the local labor and not anything more which is greatly inhibiting as compared to the labor uptake that a local airline could be able to absorb. The government has the responsibility of ensuring that the local population is served in a positive manner by all foreign investments and such an arrangement would be greatly undermining this.
The UK may decide to reject the use of the EU's legal protections of passenger’s rights. This may be advantageous for the country as it will allow it to come with a fresh set of rules that are more considerate of emerging issues in the aviation scene and thus be able to be of more service and benefit to the passengers than compared to using the EU's set of guidelines and procedures. There is also the consideration that the UK may come up with policies that are of better impact to the locals than compared to the generalized set of rules that are tailored to meet the needs of the larger Europe under the European Union. This will be beneficial as it will be able to gain favor amongst its citizenry.
The decision not to adopt the same may also be detrimental as it may lead to the degradation of the rights of passengers from other countries and this may lead to conflicts in aviation societies an even he states. This is because the set of rules and regulations that the EU has put in place are there to ensure that the whole of Europe is well catered for in the sense that the passengers can get treatment that is beneficial from a general perspective. The guidelines by the EU therefore serve to benefit the interests of the people in a manner that is far better to what the laws of a single nation would do to serve the general European population.
The Civil Aviation Authority may be the best bargain for the United Kingdom to vest air navigation services. The main advantage with this is the fact that the UK with simply be adopting a system that has already been tried and tested and the benefits regarding its use have been witnessed. First of all the use of the civil aviation authority will take the form of a business like entity whereby the industry will be strictly driven by the market forces rather than depending on the support of the government in regard to being shielded from stiff competition by other established industries. The civil aviation society is basically an extension of the government but it does not have the influence of the government and the same mindset. This is mainly because of the fact that the government focuses more on a stable economy and sound economic policies at the expense of the industry.
The main disadvantage that comes with this approach however is the fact that the civil aviation is not independent from the government especially in regard to finances and the government therefore has great influence over the affairs of the civil aviation society. This means that even as much as the civil society may have a lot to do in regard to regulating and control the airspace and the facilities that tied to aviation, the government still has the ultimate control over the authority. This paves way for political interference from the government to take shape as the government strives to directly control some of the aviation affairs and activities. One such case is whereby in the USA, congress members who have been against the loss of jobs for people in their districts have done everything to ensure that the facilities of the FAA are not consolidated. This is despite the fact that the facilities were in very bad shape and such a move would have led to major savings for the authority.
All in all, the advantages that are tied to the use of a civil aviation authority far outweigh the challenges that still mar its performance the undertaking of activities under the same context. This mainly because of the fact that the civil society can be able to operate as a private entity and whenever it is deemed necessary, government intervention can be requested. This however should come with stringent protocols and regulations such as to ensure the government does not overstep and go beyond what is the best practice and end up destabilizing the aviation sector through interference.
A government corporation simply implies that the whole industry will be controlled by the government by making use of a parastatal. This organ will simply be there to ensure that the government policies and procedures are adhered to and they are properly undertaken. It may also serve to ensure that the government is able to earn revenue from undertaking in the process. This type of corporation helps the government by ensuring that it has ultimate control over all niches of the aviation industry. It also shields the sector by availing a wide array of resources to ensure the sector remains highly competitive.
The greatest disadvantage with this type of approach is the fact that the government establishment simply becomes a monopoly as it does not allow for the easy entry of competitors and whenever there is a competitor, it is easy for the government to push aside the competitor and take up maximum control of the industry. Once there is no control, it means the level quality tends to stagnate or increases at a very slow pace. The people who end up suffering are the passengers. This mainly has to do with the fact that government corporation will be more focused on raising income and ensuring there is no competition rather than working on the improvement of services and introduction of new products.
The introduced of a nonprofit organization may also be a good thing mainly because of the fact that main driver of these types of organizations is performance standards and service to the involved stakeholders. The people who are expecting the services can thus be a very favorable position to get not only better services but improvements in regard to the standards that are set for the industry. This will guarantee of world class standards as long as the organization is properly working.
This approach is also shrouded by one major disadvantage which mainly has to do with the fact the organizations have very high chances of running shot of finances. This is because hey heavily depend on sponsor funds as they are not driven by profit but rather operate to meet the demand of the donor. They thus might fall short of the proposed outcome and this might lead to the donor cutting funding and this might result to them stopping their operations. The major effect of such a move is that it might leave behind a vacuum in the industry as there will be no regulator or any form of control that will help in taking care of the different aviation needs that the United Kingdom may have in regard to the recent status of being independent of the European Union. Such an incidence may lead to the collapse of some many related industries as the major industry that is aviation may end up with frozen operations for some time.
Research question 2
The principles in use by the two ICAO programs can be termed as being in line with the principles of airspace sovereignty. Despite the fact that they may pose some serious barriers to the aviation activities, these regulations have been put in place to ensure that there is sustainability in a number of fields. So simply because they at times tend to clash or limit the activities the activities of aviation, they cannot be entirely be termed as an impediment to sustainability but rather a means to ensure the safety of passenger and the long operational time of the industry.
The universal safety oversight audit program can for example be seen as one of the ways that the aviation industry is able to maintain its reputation as the safety mode of travel. This is because the safety and security checks cover not only the passengers but the major aspects and facilities that make up the aviation sector. This is mainly because of the fact that the program was designed as a check and balance that gives the minimum safety specifications and guidelines that all airlines are supposed to adhere to and strictly follow. These safety arrangements have ensured that all airlines are operating above the minimum security level and this has resulted to more efficiency in regard to the purpose that the program was designed to play.
The CORSIA on the other hand was established so that it would be able to aid in the control of the emissions that are as a result of aviation activities. This has manly to do with the fact that the planes and jets that are the manly modes of transport in the aviation sector make use of carbon fuel to power them. This means that there tends to be some emissions that are made when they are flying and once these emissions are not kept in check then they can run out of control and end up causing serious harm to the environment. This is largely in regard to issues such as the increase in the greenhouse effect and also acidic ran as the waste is deposited directly on the clouds.
This thus facilitates the need to embrace the fact that rather than viewing these programs as an inhibiting factor, they should be viewed as some of the factors that give the aviation industry a life line. The justification for this is that they ensure that mankind is safe and this happens to be the number one customers and clients to the aviation industry. When the client is safe and happy, then this translates to more business for the airlines.
From a reasonable point of view, the extraterritorial regulations were highly justified mainly basing on the fact that as much as the initial interests were centered on individual gains of both the US and the European Union, then the end result turned out being beneficial to the general public. This has largely to do with the fact that they have offered safety and sustainability to both the human life and a life line to the industry. According the UN charter, one of the fundamental freedoms is human life and the fact that it is put into consideration in this context, then translates to the pacts being one of the ways through which the law was upheld. This is because of the fact that they work in an indirect manner in preserving human life.
Therefore basing on a point of view that takes the law into consideration, the pacts were particularly a good thing because at the end of the day, good always prevails even if it came at the expense of the sovereignty of some states in regard to airspace matters. The importance’s and positive results of the regulations can already be seen as there have been major improvements in the airline sector and the degree of standards that can be observed in that industry can be simply as being stellar. Also the fact that this is the main mode of transport that aids individuals in moving across borders, it can be seen as a necessary pact that is unifying to all the states that make use of the aviation services.
In earlier incidences government subsidies served as a distorting factor as they rendered competition in the aviation sector a preserve for the airlines that came from powerful countries. This thus made it hard for some of the airlines in not so stable countries to be faced by great competition. Basing on the fact that the aviation sector covers a broader market and cannot simply be determined by the local market, the smaller airlines were slowly being bullied out of business by airlines from developed countries. The recent form of subsidies comes in the form of the government trying to find a way in which it can be able to control and stabilize its economy. This thus makes the government choosier when it comes to allowing subsidies to a particular airline as it has to take into account the economic impact and repercussions.
The extraterritorial regulation of even the government subsidies has ruled out the earlier advantage that was tied to the economic power of the mother country of an airline. This mainly because of the fact that there is a threshold as to how much subsidies can be given by the government. This means that as much as the government may be able to help the airlines, there is a limit which evens out the playing field by ensuring that the airlines are able to compete based on their activities rather than by backing by the government. This form of competition on macro level further leads to the growth and expansion of the industry as the industry leaders strive to set new standards and the others trying to reach such standards as well. Bottom line is that the use of the extraterritorial regulations has greatly allowed the aviation industry to develop independently. This is because the airlines has simply grown and have been shaped by the market forces rather than the instance whereby their growth can simply be attributed to government control and interference. So the far that some airlines are now is all thanks to these regulations as they been offered an equal plane for competing.
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