Which theories of criminal behavior
best explain the actions of cybercriminals?
conduct that utilizes the complexities of modern technology is on the rise in
America. The federal government has, however, made efforts to curb this menace
that has been quite perilous in the conduct of business, and even the running
of government. National security and free business are in most cases
compromised, necessitating the need to give cyber-crime prevention and
punishment a closer look, (Taylor, Fritsch, & Liederbach, 2014). In so
doing, it is important to analyze not only the practical aspects of the
discipline but also the theoretical aspects of the same. In this line, McShane
(2013) argues that theoretical scrutiny of crimes enables law enforcement work
more effectively in their quest for crime prevention and possible elimination.
of theorists have attempted to attribute criminal behavior to certain factors
that influence action. The meeting point of all these theorists and scholars
agree that indeed human behavior is a product of the interaction of a number of
factors that directly or in most times, indirectly influence their actions,
(Kanai & Rees, 2011). Consequently, these theories however much they may
be, are into three categories in terms of the factors involved. These include
the psychological theories, the sociological and environmental theories, and
the biological theories. All these schools of thought hold that criminal
behavior is an expression of a rational choice in most instances.
biological and psychological theories hold that criminal behavior is directly
influenced by the human make- up of various persons. The biological and
biosocial theory that propagates the aspect of born criminals tends to ignore
the development trends in the field of criminology such as the advent of modern
technology. However, there is an attempt therein to characterize criminal
behavior to current trends, such as the advent of epidemiological criminology
that takes account of the effect of criminal behavior on public health. With
regard to the complexities associated with cybercrimes, I believe that
biological- based theories do not sufficiently explain cybercrime, as it does
not appreciate the uniqueness of the conduct of cybercriminals.
social theories in a wide perspectives lay credence on the developmental
factors that influence criminal conduct, such as strain and frustration as a
motivating factor towards the pursuit of criminal endeavors. Such theories
include personality theory, reckless containment theory, the rational choice
theory, the routine activities theory and even the social deviance theory. All
these theories acknowledge the fact that the society within which a person
lives directly influences his choice of behavior, (Lorenc, Clayton, Neary,
Whitehead, Petticrew, M., Thomson, & Renton, 2012)
al. (2012) further allude that the social theories are further propounded by
the environmental theories such as the differential association theory that
postulates the influence of a person's clique to his choice of conduct.
Further, the exposure to criminal activities according to Taylor, Walton, &
Young (2013) has a direct influence on cybercrimes and thus cybercriminals.
Finally, with the criminal principle of mens rea, the psychological
perspectives cannot fail to influence any crime, especially those whose
intention has to be established to sustain a conviction, such as cybercrime.
Diamond (2013) opines that disorders of the mind and biological substrates have
the effect of generating unconscious primitive urges to cause harm or break the
law, and so I say. Therefore, both theories concisely explain the actions of
have been on the rise, and actually, it involves theft and destruction through
utilization of technological resources. Phishing, vishing and even identity
theft have been on the rise, and has influenced the United States’ Justice
department’s decision to establish the Cyber Division’s Cyber Initiative and
Resource Fusion Unit of the FBI and even consequently the National
Cyber-Forensics & Training Alliance (NCFTA) for equipping law enforcement
with necessary skills to manage the vice. Various cyber activities have since
been criminalized and enforceable under the Federal criminal code and laws,
(Taylor, Fritsch & Liederbach, 2014)
concerning the punishment of a cybercriminal in the nature of webpage defacers
who commit security- related offence against the government, the act is likely
to be regarded as a crime against the security and safety of the state, whose
effect is prosecution as a felony. All such crimes must be proved beyond
reasonable doubt in line with Article 1, section 12 of the USA Model Penal
Code. The statute further establishes an offence in its Article 241.8 that
relates to tampering with public records and information and goes on to provide
for possible punitive measures at the court's discretion under Article 7 and
in line with the assertion of Tonry, (2009) who holds that punishment of any
crime of any nature in the USA must have a statutory basis. I would thus punish
the webpage defacer based on the Penal Code, and issue a fine, an imprisonment
term or both. I would highly recommend a holistic approach to dealing with such
modern crimes, and forfeiture and subsequent sentencing would be effective in
punishing cyber criminals, the law enforcement must be guided and act according
to the tenets of good criminal practice such as respect and regard for human
rights and fundamental freedoms. In the enforcement of cyber-crimes, however,
the veil of inalienability of rights such as the right to privacy can
justifiably be lifted if there is a reason to believe that the interest of the
state security is at stake. Therefore, I believe that privacy can rightly be
violated in the above circumstances. The threat of organized crime as a
phenomenon can be reduced effectively by employing strategies that would break
such groupings while giving due regard to the basic tenets of criminal justice.
Calculate The Price Of Your Order
Total Price After Discount:
Frequently Asked Questions
All our writers are PHD prepared individuals. All the writers have vast experiences in specified fields for example for nursing orders the writers must have (nursing experience and major exposure to healthcare)
We get our articles from PubMed (for medicine orders and nursing) and whatever we can access through Google and scholarly references. We use professional sites and any relatable recent references within ten years.
We have a strict 0% plagiarism policy. All our papers are written from scratch and are properly cited.
Furthermore, we use premium plagiarism checkers to scan all documents before delivery.
The paper you will receive will be 100% original.
Email everything to us at email@example.com. You will receive a confirmation email from the support staff.
First, proceed to place your order then you can attach and send everything else the writer will need via email.
Yes, any alterations will be free of charge as long as they are in line with the initial instructions provided. No "surprises" regarding the price.
Any feedback from her professor will be taken seriously, and the writer (under our terms) will work on all changes without any extra payments (we do not have any hidden charges).
We will conduct a free plagiarism check, chapter by chapter. Editing is free of charge since the writer works hand in hand with an assigned editor.
The account will automatically be created for you by our database. The account only notes your order details and the price for your order, nothing much.