South East Asia: Social & Geographical Differences | My Paper Hub
South East Asia is
characterized by unique geogra...
South East Asia is
characterized by unique geographical aspects. It is different from other
regions of the world because of its unique geographical distribution of
different countries. However, it is a region rich in cultural, social, economic
and political diversity. Area studies explore the different aspects of social
and geographical differences characterized by demarcation into states. The
scramble for the area which took place after the Second World War led to the
establishment of states based on social and political factors. However, the
scramble for the area was not inclusive of all social aspects. Because of high
diversity in South Asia, not all social factors were enough to warrant for a
geographical space. The aspect of geographies of knowing was, therefore,
limited to heartlands which were areas big enough to have area dispensation.
However, other areas were left behind as peripheral areas to larger ones. The use of geography for the production of a
particular type of knowledge can be limited because of lack of inclusivity of a
lot of other smaller factors that do not fit within political and social
Module 2 radio interview
Professor Adrian Vickers
explores south East Asia as a geographical entity regarding how some of its
features influence its political, cultural, economic and social aspects of the
region. The aspect of insular islands is important for the geographic
characteristic of the region. It is characterized by having the mainland and
the islands. The islands are considered to be connected with one another by the
sea and have been significant for social and economic aspects of the region.
They were connectors of trade between India and China and remain significant.
The numerous geographical divisions associated with the islands caused the
establishment of different and unique cultures within them. However, there was
always a sense of connection within them that has influenced the establishment
of unique cultural aspects of the South East Asian region. The establishment of
contemporary sates in the region was influential in removing the historical
connections between different social and cultural groups of the region.
Module 3 reflection
The aspect of gender is very
significant within the Vietnamese society. It is a social construction that is
rooted in deeper social and religious aspects of the Vietnamese society. One
main aspect is religion and mediumship. Religious rituals are very significant
in the society of Vietnam. They are also very influential in the development of
gender role. A good example is a mediumship which is a role dominated by women.
There is also the aspect of music and art and how they are represented within
religious settings within Vietnam. Of great importance is how these aspects of
mediumship, have been influential in the development of the cultural identities
of the people of Vietnam. Mediumship music is a great element of religious
ritual in the country. They are significant because of their construction of
religious identities. The representation of gender through religious factors is
significant in understanding the characteristics of social and cultural aspects
of the South Asian regions.
Module 3 radio interview
Marl Allon explores the
influences religion has on the gender identities of the people of South Asia.
He speaks about Buddhism and how it is represented within the societies of
South Asia. The practices of Buddhism are unique. They included different
practices that are very influential in defining gender roles in the society. A
good example is monks who are usually men and are committed to strict practices
of Buddhism that include celibacy, and meditation. Buddhism has also influenced
political aspects of southeastern Asia. Indonesia is, however, a country that
is unique because it is based on a mixture of different religious beliefs.
Buddhism has had limited influence on the social-cultural and political aspects
of the country. Despite the great religious diversity, south Asia is
characterized by high religious tolerance, which is representative of the
aspect of accommodation.
Module 4 reflection
The combination of
storytelling with concepts adds historical accounts with a lot of insight and
illuminates the truth. The history of the political aspects of South East Asia
explores various factors that are very influential of what the region is today.
The use of theories is very important in telling historical events because they
bring out the aspects of causalities. Causalities are a feature that is very
instrumental in explaining why certain things are the way they are. For a long
time, the aspects of nation and nationalism have been described using
historical accounts. However, there has been a great need for more scrutiny
from which concepts and theories can help answer. The use of theories has
helped in establishing the validity of the various political systems within
different countries of the region. Modern knowledge established through history
has explored colonial and postcolonial aspects of the countries of the region.
However, more scrutiny is needed to know why various political systems existed.
Module 4 radio interview
Dr. Lagerkvist explores the
nation of Laos as it emerged as a modern nation-state. She explores the
political establishment and establishment of Laos as part of the South East
Asian society. Laos was developed as a result of high pressure within the region
for the development of nations after colonization. Various historical factors
within the region influenced the establishment of the different political
systems within the region. Laos is a country that experienced great changes in
its politics especially form military to social rule. The relationship between
Laos and other countries was also significant in explaining its various
characteristics. Unlike many other democratic nations in the country, Laos is
based on a social, political system like China and Vietnam. It is, therefore,
evident to say that there are various political factors responsible for the
establishment of Laos. Historical events can, however, be scrutinized to offer
more insight and illumination to offer causality of various factors.
Module 4 radio interview two
Professor Adrian Vickers
explores the history of Indonesia regarding the different nations that
colonized it. These are nations that had great influences over the political
and social nature of the nation. The Dutch were the first colonist of the
nation. The Dutch's influence over the nation was limited to trade and other
forms of business. The British came in and had a little more interest in the
nation. The country's colonization by the British was for a short period but
had great influence over how various social, political and economic aspects of
the nation came to be. The interview explores various historical aspects of the
colonization of Indonesia and how they were influential for the establishment
of the unique features associated with the Indonesian social and political
factors. There was also the French who
had interest in the nation. The Dutch, the French and the British all had
interests in the nations and this created tension in the nation. The current
map and nature of South East Asia including Indonesia are based on the colonial
Module 4 radio interview
Dr. Yeow Tong explores the
historical links between Singapore and Malaysia. These are the two nations of
South East Asia which have a great relationship with one another. One factor is
based on their history and to be more specific, the fact that they were both
colonized by the British. Direct and indirect rule by the British colony has
been influential in the development of the social and political nature of both
Singapore and Malaysia. There were various mechanisms used by the British
colony to exert control over the two nations. The two nations were controlled
as one, but after the Second World War, the colonial government established
them as individual nations. The aspects of race, especially about the high
number of Chinese in Singapore, coupled with high nationalism in Malaysia, led
to the separation of the two nations. However, the British colony intended to
establish them as a single nation.
Module 5 reflection
The association of South East
Asia represents several countries in the region. It is an intergovernmental
organization which is responsible for the promotion of Pan-Asianism regarding
aspects of political, social, economic and security among others. It is an
organization expected to have great levels of power based on the political and
economic aspects of the nations that are part of it. However, there are
different organizations of scholars who provide different perspectives about
the nation of the countries for this reason. Neo-realists believe that the
nations of these regions have a good economic, political, and cultural
organization, but are unable to convert such aspects into actual power. On the
other hand, constructivists consider the good political and economic, and
cultural organizations as a show of great power and do not have to involve
aspects of the conflict. Neo-realist related power to coercion and force and
the use of military strength to exert power within the region.
Module 5 radio interview
Paul Busbarat explores the
political aspects of different nations of South East Asia based on their
historical developments. These are factors that are very influential of the
nature of the political, economic and cultural aspects of the region of power.
Most of the countries in the regions were colonized except a few such as
Thailand. Most of them have thus adopted a European political system. Thailand
is, however, a nation that was never colonized. It is characterized by having a
constitutional monarchy which makes it have a system more like the European
type of political governance. The political history and characteristics of the
different countries of South East Asia have been very influential in the
development of a liberal form of organization that is characteristic of the
ASEAN. It is an aspect that creates a
differentiation between a neo-realist perspective and that of constructivist.
Module 5 radio interview two
Simon butt explores the
political organization of the countries of South East Asia. He specifically
focuses on Indonesia because of its unique characteristic. Indonesia has
established itself as a democratic nation. It is, however, a very diverse
nation and sometimes trying to meet the needs of all single groups of people is
difficult. Democracy has sometimes been considered as a political system that
has failed. However, no other political system has prevailed in Indonesia other
than democracy. The democratic nature of the different political aspects has
led to the development of liberalism which reflects on the neighboring nations
of the region. The establishment of a democratic state in Indonesia has not
been easy. However, there has been a high focus on ensuring that it thrives and
becomes a strong political system. It is a political system that resonates with
other countries in the region, and that makes it very important for Indonesia.
Module 5 radio interview
Christine Ward explores the
post-conflict transition into democracy in Cambodia. Cambodia is a nation from
South East Asia, whose politics is characterized by several transitions. There
has been a period of conflict which it transitioned into a central government
and the continued to development of the somewhat democratic politics associated
with the voting of political officials. However, the democracy of Cambodia has
been met with a lot of challenges especially regarding the strength of
electoral institutions. There have been many protests in the nation for the
fight for democracy. Cambodian politics has had a lot of military influence on
political matter. There have been many Coup De’ Tats. The use of force
associated with military power has hindered the nation from attaining full
democracy. It is a nation that considers itself as democratic, but there are
still many challenges that are limiting the rights and liberties of the people.
The power structures are very dynamic, and this has caused a lot of problems
for the country’s political space.
Module 6 reflection
integrating all materials
The region of Asia has had an
unprecedented rise in economic development since the 1980s. The high rate of
development has set it as one of the most economically developing regions of
the world. However, there are different aspects at play about why the region
has developed to such high level. One factor is associated with the
relationship between economic development and politics. The politics of the
region has been highly influential in its economic environment. The markets of
East Asia are considered developed and rich and have been growing rapidly over
the years. They are one of the main producers of manufactured goods in the
world and export their products to many regions of the world. The economic
characteristic of the region is built upon a political foundation that
resonates with most of the countries of the same region. It is therefore
important to understand that politics of South East Asia has been very
influential in their economic development.
Module 6 radio interview
Gavan Butler explores the
political economy of the countries of South East Asia. He explores Thailand in
relations to how politics influence the economy of the region. Politics is a
very significant factor because it dictates the stability of the nation. It
influences investments, production and the development of economic policies
that favor growth and development. The political characteristics of Thailand
show the changes in economic factors in the country. The 2014 coup in the
country led to the establishment of a military government which was more
authoritative. This form of government had great implications of the economic
aspects of the country. The country’s economic growth went down; business went
low as tourists and investors reduced. People are complaining of the slowness
of the economy. The case of Thailand is evident of the political and economic
nature of any country. Politics is very influential of the success of the
economy of any region.
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