Literature is dynamic meaning that it is always changing. The development of different forms of literature is based on changes in political society. Religious and economic factors in the world. These are factors that changed the perspectives of people in relation to their view of themselves the society and the world. Changes in the political, social and religious aspects have led to the development of literary movements. These are movements characterized by unique techniques used to develop literature. Literature is considered a form of art. It is characterized by the use of words for the expression of thought truth and imaginations. These are features that change based on the different movements. Literature as a form of human expression associated with offering information to readers. Examples of literature movements include the modernist movement that was prominent in the 19th and the 20th century and the symbolism movement which was prominent in the 19th century. These are two distinct movements that are unique from one another based on the techniques used and some of the main themes they portrayed through their literal expressions. They are also linked with various important writers who are well known for their contribution to literature based on their use of features of the movement. Gertrude Stein and Edgar Allan Poe are two writers that respectively represent the two movements. This paper with, therefore, explore each of the two writers based on their contribution to literature in relation to the literal movements they represented. It will explore some of the important themes that they expressed through their writing and how they were influential to the world.
Gertrude Stein was a writer form America. She is considered as one of the main figures associated with modernism. She used her literature in the form of poems, novels and played to explore themes brought about by the aspect of modernism. Literal modernism dates between the 19th and the 20th century. It was a movement that was popular especially in \north America and in Europe. Modernism in literature is characterized by a shift in traditional ways of writing. One main aspect of modernism in literature is the reduction in limits associated with expression by writers. Writers such as Gertrude Stein used modernism to express their true feelings and attitudes about the world around them (Wilson, 2004).
The aspects of modernism in literature are mainly based on the events of the First World War when the world needed to reassess traditional modes of expression and representation. It was focused on the rationality based on the human mind. Modernisms in literature is characterized by the use of themes associated with aspects of globalization and industrialization. They explore the aspects of the industry, poor working conditions for workers and the horrifying nature of new technologies from warfare that were highly used during the first world war. Modernist writers such as Gertrude Stein focused on the inner self and factors associated with consciousness based on the world around. Stein used modernism to explain aspects of decline in civilization an asks the questions of what is it to be an American based on the deteriorated nature of standards of living brought about by industrialization and globalization. She also questions what it is to be a woman in the American society in such a time. She uses the technique of observation to depict daily aspects of her life and what she observes. She uses her life and growth to explore various perceptions people have of life, their society and the world based on the modernist perspective (Clayton, 2015).
Symbolism movement is also another era. It began in in the 19th century. The movement was established as a reaction to realism and naturalism. These were considered as anti- idealistic because they did not take advantage of the ability of the mind to use imagination during the development of different forms of art. Edgar Alan Poe is one of the writers that are considered to have made great contributions to the moment of symbolism the main feature of the symbolism movement was based on the notion that art ought to be used for the representation of truths but in an indirect manner. This led to the development of metaphoric and suggestive ways of writing. Edgar Allan Poe used symbolism in almost all his poems and short stories (Porter, 1984).
He used symbolism as a technique to express hidden meaning. The technique is effective in expanding the boundaries of imagination for readers to enable them to explore various avenues associated with attitude, beliefs, and ideas. The technique is also effective in developing a strong connection between readers and the author. Edgar Allan Poe used symbolism as a technique to express his views on religion, life, death love and many other aspects that revolved around his life. The poem The Raven is a great example of how Poe used symbolism to explore the theme of life, death, and mental problems. He uses symbolism in the poem to stretch the boundaries of the story and using it to hide multiple perspectives of the story. The use of symbols and metaphors help in the development of mental images that explore reader’s imagination which is very important in expanding their ideas in relation to the work of literature. Symbolism is, therefore, a literal technique that popularized the symbolist movement (Porter, 1984).
Stein and Poe are therefore good representatives of two of the most popular literal movements. Modernism and symbolisms have had great impacts and influences to the modern world. Modernism helped express the various problems associated with industrialization and globalization. It highlighted how technological advancement could be used for evil instead of good. On the other hand, the symbolism movement helped in the expansion of human imagination. Stein explores aspects of the human condition in the world termed as advanced. She also explored aspects of feminism (Wilson, 2004). These are all features of self-expression which are common aspects of modernism. On the other hand, Poe explores the themes of life, love, and death. He expressed these themes through the help of symbolism. Symbolism helped him hide meaning in his poems to allow readers to broaden their imagination. The two also explored the use of different techniques. Stein used aspects of her daily life to create a picture of her perspective of life. On the other hand, Poe explored the use of imagery and metaphors to develop meaning in his poems (Clayton, 2015).
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