Antibiotic resistance is becoming a
Antibiotic resistance is becoming a
great problem in the medical world. It is affecting the use of antibiotics
because most of them do not work. Antibiotics leave people vulnerable to
diseases. Some are chronic that they lead to death. A big example of antibiotic
resistance is Tuberculosis. This is a disease that is airborne with a very high
potency. However, mutation and other factors have made it resistance to
multiple drugs making it very hard to treat; various factors cause antibiotic
resistance in humans. One of the major ways that lead to this resistance is
through agricultural activities. This paper will explore how agricultural
activities lead to the development of resistance in humans.
Antibiotic resistance is currently
described using apocalyptic terms because of the high number of deaths in
America it is causing. It is growing as a major problem because diseases that
were once controlled and almost eradicated can find themselves back in the
population and cause devastating effects. Farming activities are described as
the number one cause of antibiotic resistance. Agricultural activities,
including livestock raring are said to receive more than eighty percent of all
antibiotics used. These antibiotics are administered through medicine from
veterinary services. There is the
intensive use of antibiotics in different ways for the prevention of disease
and the promotion of growth. Many of the animals kept for food such as chicken
and pigs are associated with the development of antibiotic resistance through
bacteria in their guts. This leads to the development of resistant genes and
reservoirs of bacteria that has turned resistant to antibiotics. This is thus
easy to be transferred to humans into human populations (Chang et al., 2015).
Three mechanisms are considered as the
causes of the development of antibiotic resistance in humans but develop form
agricultural activities. It includes the direct infection of humans by
resistant bacteria that has developed in animals. This can be explained by the
high-level use of antibiotics for the promotion of growth and prevention of
diseases in animals which leads to the development of antibiotic-resistant
bacteria in their guts. Another mechanism includes the sustained transmission
of bacteria strains resistant to drugs form animals. This sustained transmission
leads to the breaking of the species barrier of the strain that makes them
affect humans (McEwen, 2006).
When farming animals with a resistant
strain of bacteria are available in the human diet for a very long time, the
strain mutates and gains the capacity of having harmful implications to humans.
The third mechanism is associated with the movement of genetic materials from
agriculture to humans. They are all factors associated with increased pressure
on the use of antibiotics for agricultural purposes. Humans are at great risk
because of the high level of exposure to pathogens that have developed
resistance to drugs. The movement of these pathogens from animals to humans
occurs through direct contact, contact with humans that have been infected and
most of all through consumption of animal products infected with the pathogens.
A break in the species barrier is
becoming a great problem. This is associated with having pathogens that only
affected livestock, mutating and having harmful effects on humans. It is a
growing problem because of the introduction of new pathogens with harmful
implications on humans. There is also the rise of resistant genes from
agricultural activities and are now easily transferred to human pathogens, thus
enhancing their resistance to antibiotics.
The application of antibiotics in
agriculture is usually for prophylactic and chemotherapeutic purposes. They are
also added to their diet for the improvement of feed efficiency as well as for
the promotion of the growth of livestock. They are, therefore, very important
in the development of agricultural yield.
However, they leave residues in animal products. Antibiotics are of
medium to low molecular weight. This makes them leave residues in the meat,
eggs, and milk. These are all products that are consumed by humans are the
purpose of production of animals. These
residues find their way into human metabolisms and lead drug resistance in
humans. Some of their implications include the development of allergies, teratogenic
and carcinogenic effects, toxicity and many other negative implications
It is, therefore, important to
understand how antibiotic resistance works. It is a term that has grown in
significance in recent times, and this is because of its implication on human
health. After great developments in medicine and vaccines, the world had made a
great step towards healthy living. However, overuse of antibiotics for
agricultural production is proving to be very dangerous. There is high demand
for food in every part of the world, and farmers seek measures to develop
effective and quality products. Antibiotics thus find their way into animal
products as a result of the need to improve food production. The extensive use
of antibiotics in agricultural production thus leads to the development of
drug-resistant pathogens that easily find their ways into human metabolism.
They may cause direct infection, cases a break in the species barrier or lead
to the transfer of resistance genes into human pathogens. Drug-resistant
pathogens are becoming a great problem in the world that requires great
mitigation measures (Hoelzer et al., 2017).
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