Many researchers have developed different opinions...
Many researchers have developed different opinions about reasons that lead to the collapse of the Roman Empire. Different records by the historians show varying opinions to the reasons that contributed to the fall of the Roman Empire. Some historians say that Roman Empire declined as a result of great pressure that came from those who lived outside the empire. In 4 th and 5 th centuries, the arrival of the barbarians made the Romans allow more foreigners into the empire. The opinions that many historians have about arrival of the barbarians in the Roman Empire is that they wanted to take control of the Empire to ensure that everything was in their favor. The new immigrants into the Empire were assigned the roles of working in the Roman farms and the roman armies in huge numbers. Most opinions by the historians indicate that the huge numbers of barbarians in the roman army made them resistant to an extent that they sneaked by force where they faced resistance. The Roman Empire administration was unable to control them making it a state of immigrants. According to other research works, the Roman Empire declined because barbarians had fed it for a long time and thus demanded to take control (Wood 86). The Roman administration could thus not have declined to allow them control the empire. Rome was no longer a Greek state, but the state comprises of people from different corners of the world such as Germans, Syrians, Egyptians and Dacians. Rome had thus been undergoing great changes that affected its success and stand in the future. It had turned from being a stronghold in Italy to a multinational power that later collapsed. Many historical records contain a common belief and idea that the decline of the Roman Empire was grounded on the activities of barbarians.
Most primary sources about the decline of the Roman Empire contain such information that posses different opinions on the events that took place in the empire ( Hoben 34). There are a number of
original documents that contain recorded information about the decline of the Roman Empire. According to the ancient publications in reference to the history of the Ancient Greek, The Roman Empire was faced with one problem of the Carthaginians who had always invaded them. The Carthagians cross to the mountain chain of Alp to the northern side of Italy resulted to great challenges for the Empire as they could not have access to anything outside the empire. It weakened the empire and thus resulting to its future downfall (Gibbon 23). The antagonism between the emperor and the senate was amongst the major causes for the fall of the Roman Empire as most research findings, and historical books indicate. The Roman emperor had the authorized authority to rule religions of the Roman people, civil and take part in affairs of the military wit the senate being the body that advised him. The emperor was also given the power over life or death and would order for the assassination of those who did contrary to the roman rules. The powers that the emperor violated ruined the empire due to corruption practices that he was involved in. The wealthy emperors were much corrupt, and most of them lived immoral lives. This resulted to antagonism between the emperors and the senate. It could have been contributed by the fact that the senate did not like the emperor or the emperor did contrary to what the senators expected. Moral decline among those in the rich upper class, nobility and the emperors had devastating effects to the Roman Empire. Most people in the upper class that comprised of the rich and the emperors exhibited immorality, adultery and other forms of sexual behaviors that greatly affected success of the Empire. These immoral behaviors b those in the upper class resulted to revolts by the middle class and the lower class thus creating instability in the Empire. It was because of the immorality mainly affected people in the lower class and the slaves. There was an exhibition of religious festivals such as the saturnalia and other forms of sexual explicit acts to amuse the citizens of Roman Empire. Forced prostitution and Brohel also flourished w The Roman Empire’s decline is one that describes with genuine facts of traditions marking the end of classical Antiquity (Gibbon 56). On the other hand, it also described the origin of the European middle age. In the 5th-century empires that existed in the northwestern Africa, Italy inclusive was affected by invasion in the period known as migration period. Though, some parts survived until the emergence of Muslim conquest. The empire whole initiated major political and cultural transformation since the crisis that occurred in the 3rd century, which resulted to shift toward ritualized autocratic form of government. The other factor that resulted to is the adoption of Christianity as the state religion that resulted from the rejection of the Classical Antiquity values as well as their traditions
Diversity in social classes some instances had impact on the decline of Roman Empire as the richness of kingdoms had had influence due to improvement of warfare technology and tactics enabled them to conquer neighboring kingdoms. On social classes of roman kingdom is analyzed by the historian Michael Rotstovtzeff and economist Ludwig Von Mises who both argued that diversity of economic policies possessed a tremendous impact on the decay of the Roman Empire. In 2nd century AD Roman Empire developed a complex market economy which facilitated a free in the trade state. Tariffs and laws that controlled prices of food stuff and other commodities had no impact because it did not fix the prices below the market levels. Moreover in 3rd century introduction of currency led to inflation resulting to introduction of price control laws in prices of commodities in free market equilibrium levels. Therefore disparities on currency existed and this led existence of social classes which affected kingdom wealth in possessing and bargaining power of the commodities. This weakened the kingdom and led to attack by neighboring communities such as invasion by Barbarians. Artificially low prices led to decline of food stuff especially in cities where inhabitants depended on them through trade. Series of restrictions followed including laws that prevented migration from countryside’s to cities, depopulation followed as many Roman citizens left trade to practice subsistence farming. This resulted to oppressive and arbitrary taxation which resulted to decline in trade and wealth of the empire leading to decline of empire. Slaves were introduced to work in farm which had impact on the natives as they lacked jobs which resulted to decline of the empire too. This weakened the empire from external attacks of the hostile empires resulting to decline of the empire. Roman Empire emerged from the Roman republic during the reign of August Caesar and Julius Caesar, who transformed it from a republic to a monarchy state. Rome reached climax in 2nd century; then it started declining slowly having many restorations and revivals in the way. Factors that led to decline of the decline of Roman Empire are still debatable to date and are likely to be in a series of them. Therefore, there are various causes and mechanisms of the decline of the Roman Empire; Edward Gibbon developed a historical theme on the on its decline in 1776.He based his argument on a historical discussion on what caused the fall of roman empire, and what to reduction of power in the only remaining eastern empire in 4th and 5th empire. Gibbon was not the first to develop a theme on the decline on the decline of the empire its only that he gave a valid speculation of well referenced and researched account (Gibbon 98). He emphasized and explored on ideas that led to internal decline of the empire which are as follows the disintegration of political, economic, civil wars, military and other social institutions and finally he generalized on the attack from outside the empire by hostile empire.
He had a valid reason on the decline of Roman Empire that somehow provided a clear analysis on how the empire came to an end. He gave no consensus on a date for the empire declines’ commencement pivoted many allusions to historian analogies on the decline of the empire to date. He founded that there was uncontrollable influx of Goths and other Barbarian’s into Balkan province that worsened the situation in the western empire that resulted to recoveries that were incomplete and temporary (Gibbon 109). Other factors that resulted to decline is Battle of Adrianople, the death of Theodosius 1 in the 395 which marked the last time Roman Empire was politically stable and unified, the murder of Stilicho in 408, crossing of the Rhine river by Germanic tribes, the death of Constantia (III) in 421, sack of Rome in 410. Gibbon concluded that September 4, 476 marked the dissolution of Roman Empire when Romulus Augustus, who was the last emperor of Western Roman Empire, was assassinated by a German chieftain known as Odoacer. For Eastern Roman Empire, Julius Nepos who ruled there was killed in 480 marking it decline too. Roman Empire lasted for a little while in the western empire, and interpretation in the recent schools argues that great changes in the political context can be accurately described as a complex cultural transformation than its decline. This provides with relevant facts that resulted to decline of east and west Roman Empire because it provides most probable reasons that could have resulted to decline of the empire. The fall of Roman Empire occurred spontaneously in many centuries; there is no consensus of
when it began though many dates and times have been proposed by a number of historians. In third- century followings, events occurred. A period of political instability that was referred to as Crisis of the
third century (234-284).The reign of emperor Diocletian , who attempted on political and economic reforms which resulted to revolts in the following centuries. In 4th century during the reign of Constantine 1, he built Constantinople and converted to Christianity which altered the religions of the empire affecting the core functions of the emperor. This acted as favoring this religion and impacted that all roman emperors would be Christians; this led to conflicts, and the empire was socially unstable with religious differences. In the same century there emerged the battle of Andriapole that left many Roman soldiers dead, and Emperor Valens was killed. This led the settlement of Valens within its borders who rebelled the Roman rule. In 5th-century king, Alaric raided Greece with Italy resulting to sack of Rome. In the same century Hunnic Empire aroused under king Atila and Blade who raided Balkans and Italy threatening both Constantinople and Rome. Different sources both primary and secondary show common opinions, ideas and even events that took place in the Roman Empire resulting to its decline. They also explain the history of the empire to
show its emergence. Many researchers and historians have also conducted their research, and most of their findings come to a common conclusion to factors that would have contributed to Roman Empire’s decline. In most cases, we find that the Emperors in the Empire contributed greatly to its decline. We also find that the invasions of barbarians who were immigrants into the Empire contributed to its decline ads they demanded to take control of the empire. However, there are cases that he sources contain varying opinions to the decline of the Roman Empire due o development of ideas that the contributors of the sources think could be the cause of the decline. It is for the reasons that most sources are founded on different historical records from different historians who would have thought in different perspectives. In conclusion, the decline of the Roman Empire was, however, contributed by different reasons as different sources explain. Historians have conducted different studies and research from different historical records that had been written in the ancient times to know the real course of the decline. The records contain similar opinions, ideas and events at some point. Nevertheless, there exist other cases where the records differ in some of the factors that contributed to Roman Empire decline. Comparison of both secondary and primary sources could thus help in making the right conclusion for the real cause of Roman Empire decline.
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